british regiment "american revolution" "revolutionary war" "regimental history" 1775 1776 1777 1778 1779 1780 1781 1782 1783

An Historical Sketch of the 64th Regiment by Major HG Purdon



Disagreements having arisen between the Courts of St. James's and Versailles, with regard to the fulfillment of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle - certain mutual acts of aggression having taken place in North America and on the seas - preparations were made for war, which was proclaimed against France on the 18th May, 1756. In January of the latter year, Lord Barrington, Secretary of State for War, laid estimates before the House for additional forces to be raised. and amongst other augmentations. fifteen of the infantry regiments were authorised to raise second battalions from the 25th August, 1756, which were afterwards constituted separate regiments. In this year accordingly. the 11th Regiment was increased to twenty companies, which were divided into two battalions. [The 11th was at Southampton when it formed its 2nd battalion, and then moved to Newcastle-on-Tyne. In 1758, when the second battalions were formed into distinct corps, they were numbered from sixty-one to seventy-five.]

By this arrangement the second battalion of the 11th Regiment became the 64th Regiment on the 21st April, 1758. under the command of Colonel The Honourable John Barrington, from the 2nd Foot Guards.

[Shortly after they were formed, King George II decreed that the new regiments should be given seniority as from the date of their formation as 2nd Battalions. and thus, in common with the others, the 64th officially dates from the year 1756.]

The following officers were appointed to commissions in the 64th Regiment on its formation, from the 21st April, 1758:-

Colonel: Hon. John Barrington

Lieut. Col.: Wollaston Pym

Major: Thomas Bell

Captains: Hon. Alexander Leslie, Alexander Symmer, John Wedderburn, David Dickson, Watson Powell, Bernard Rice

Captain Lieutenant: Nicholas Tench

Lieutenants: William Maxwell, Charles Townshend, William Morrison, John Roberts, Thomas Acklom, Thomas Walker, Curtis Farran, Peter Calder, John Williams, Gerard More, George Bell, Mansell Andrews, Bertles Gilland, Robert Kingston, Robert Hoyes, George Brown

Ensigns: William Ellison, William Tidswell, John Nolan, William Irwin, Robert Lofty, Charles Bell, William Abington, John Townsend

Chaplain: Robert Bell

Quartermaster: John Roberts

Adjutant: Charles Townshend

Surgeon: -- Douglas

Agent: Mr. Fisher, Axe Yard, Westminster

The Regiment had not been many months in existence when they were ordered on active service. The Government had decided on the reduction of the French West India Islands, and an expedition was accordingly fitted out for the purpose. The troops detailed consisted of the 3rd, 4th, 61st, 63rd, 64th. and 65th Regiments under Lieutenant-General Hopson with Major-General The Hon. John Barrington (colonel of the 64th Regiment), an experienced officer, as second in command. [The 64th marched from Newcastle to Chatham, where the main force was concentrating, before marching to Portsmouth under Major Thomas Bell (or Ball. Sources vary).] The force embarked at St. Helens, Isle of Wight, on the 12th November, 1758, and sailed for Barbados, under the escort of eight ships of the Line. They arrived at Carlisle Bay on the 3rd January, and were joined by part of the 38th Regiment from Antigua, and seven companies of the 42nd Highlanders; a battalion of Marines and 500 artillerymen were also included in the expeditionary force, which numbered some 6,800 men. The troops were divided into four brigades, commanded by Colonels Armiger, Haldane, Trapand, and Clavering.

The whole armament sailed from Carlisle Bay on the 13th January, and on the 15th entered the Bay of Fort Royal, Martinique. Next day three ships of the Line engaged and speedily silenced Fort Negro, which was situated some three miles north of the citadel of Fort Royal. A battery at Casdenaviers was next silenced, when the troops landed at Negro Point, and a camping ground having been selected in an open space between two ravines, the force here spent the night formed in a square. At dawn on the 17th it was reported that the enemy had advanced and were entrenching themselves about a building near the camp. The Grenadiers were sent forward, and they soon drove the French back to Morne Tortueson after a smart skirmish, in which the British sustained a loss of sixty-three in killed and wounded. Morne Tortueson was an eminence in the rear of Fort Royal. which overlooked the town, and said to be the most important post in the Island.

The French had given up the idea of further resistance. and were about to ask for terms, when General Hopson thought proper to desist from further action. It was found that heavy guns from the fleet could not be conveniently landed in order to reduce the citadel, and the force being considered insufficient for the enterprise, the troops were reembarked and the attack on the Island abandoned.

The fleet in the meantime had reconnoitered the town of St. Pierre in the north of the Island, but found the place too strong to attack. So it was decided to undertake the conquest of the rich Island of Guadeloupe [Guadeloupe is in fact two islands, Basse Terre to the west, and Grand Terre to the east, the two being divided by a narrow channel]; sail was made accordingly and the fleet appeared off Basse Terre the capital of the western island. On the 23rd the ships of war stood in and opened fire on the citadel and fortifications of Basse Terre. The action was maintained with great vivacity until evening, when the place was in flames and the magazines blown up. During the engagement the Ripon, commanded by Captain Jeckyll, having run aground under two batteries, had a narrow escape of being destroyed. At dawn on the 24th the troops landed when the defences wcrc found abandoned; the Governor D'Estriel having retired to the hills, some six miles inland, with the garrison, where they fortified themselves, and arming the negroes, continually harassed the British by their petty warfare. The work entailed on the troops holding the advanced posts was excessive, and the sickness caused thereby great. By the end of January 1,500 men (a quarter of the force) were on the sick list, and 600 had been invalided to Antigua in the hope that they might recover.

Towards the middle of February Commodore Moore, who was in command of the ships of war, sailed round to Grand Terre, where he found a good harbour at Fort Louis. On the 13th he bombarded the fort defending the place, for six hours, when the Marines and Highlanders landed and carried it. [Toward the end of February part of the 64th under Major Bell was sent round to this place probably to relieve the Marines.] By this time 1,800 officers and men had died or were in hospital, and General Hopson, who had been suffering from a mortal disease, died on the 27th February, when the command devolved on Major-General Barrington, who resolved to prosecute the war with vigour. Leaving the 63rd Regiment to garrison the citadel in Basse-Terre, he embarked the remainder of the force and made sail for Grand Terre, the richest of the two islands. After five days at sea the transports arrived on the 11th March off Fort Louis, when the troops disembarked. It took a fortnight to put the defences of the place in order, and General Barrington, who had formed a plan to carry on the war by detachments, dispatched Colonel Crump, of the 4th Regiment. with 600 bayonets to reduce the French settlements in Grand Terre.

The latter landed between the small towns of St. Annes and St. Francis, both of which he destroyed, this being accomplished with small loss. On the 29th General Barrington sailed from Fort Louis with 300 men and landed at Le Gosier, a few miles to the east, where he fell on the French stationed there and drove them out, then making his way back to Fort Louis by land, he attacked the enemy who had commenced to beseige the place, and captured a battery of 24-pounders which was to have opened on the fort next day. Most of the settlements in Grand Terre having been destroyed, General Barrington resolved to proceed in the same manner in the Island of Basse Terre. So, early in April, Brigadier Clavering with 1,300 men and six guns landed near Arnouville in the north of the island, unopposed, the enemy having retired and taken up a strong position behind the River Licorne.

Here Colonel Clavering attacked them on the 12th April with the 4th and 42nd regiments, and drove them out of their entrenchments, although the natural obstacles to be overcome were great; the British loss amounted to sixty-five killed and wounded. The enemy then retreated southward and took up another position behind the River Lezarde. However, on the 13th their flank was turned, when they retired abandoning their guns. They then attempted to make a stand at Petit-Bourg on the coast, but were driven out of the place by the fire of a bomb vessel sent there for the purpose by General Barrington. At Petit-Bourg the British halted, but Colonel Clavering moved out on the 15th and drove the French from Gouyave, where they left seven guns. On the same day Colonel Crump, who had been transferred with his detachment to Basse Terre, was sent with 700 men to Mahault Bay, where he destroyed a vast quantity of stores, and then proceeded to join Colonel Clavering at Petit-Bourg. Leaving 250 men to garrison the latter place, Clavering marched on the 18th and moved southwards towards St. Mary's, where the French had collected all their forces in order to resist the further advance of the British. On arriving before the place Colonel Clavering turned it with a detachment, on which the enemy retired to a position further back, where entrenchments had been thrown up. Here another flanking movement being made, the French quitted their lines to oppose the design, when they were attacked and utterly routed with the loss of all their cannon. On the 19th the troops entered the rich district of Capesterre, and the inhabitants, dreading its destruction, sent two deputies to General Barrington for the purpose of inquiring what terms would be granted them, if they surrendered. These were settled without delay; the small islands of Deseada, Los Santos, and Petit Terre being included in the capitulation, and this success was followed by the reduction of Marie-Gallante.

In these operations the British (including the Royal Navy) lost 12 officers killed and 23 wounded, besides 21 who died of disease; 85 non-commissioned officers and men were killed, and 215 wounded. The number that died of disease is not recorded, but was very great. Lieutenants Bell, Southouse, and Maxwell, of the 64th Regiment were wounded, while Captain Walker, Ensign Irwing, Surgeon Webb, Mates Robinson and Hudson, succumbed to the effects of disease. Only one rank and file of the 64th Regiment is stated to have been killed, and four wounded. The 4th, 63rd and 65th Regiments were left to form the garrison of Guadeloupe, and Colonel Crump was made governor of the island, which was evacuated in 1763. General Barrington, with the remnants of the 3rd, 6lst and 64th Regiments sailed for England in June under convoy of thc Roebuck man-of-war.

[The campaign earned the Regiment its first Battle Honour GUADELOUPE 1759, although it had to wait until 1909 before it was awarded. Curiously enough it was also the first awarded to the 38th Foot, later the lst South Staffords, with whom the 64th were to amalgamate exactly 200 years later.]

The 64th landed in Portsmouth, and a monthly return dated 8th August, 1759, gives the strength of the Regiment on arrival as follows: 1 Lt. Col, 1 Major, 5 Captains, 14 Lts., 6 Ensigns, 1 chaplain, 1 adjutant, 1 quarter-master, 1 surgeon, 31 serjeants, 15 drummers, 2 fifers, 89 rank and file fit for duty, and 58 sick; wanting to complete 3 drummers and 787 rank and file.

From Portsmouth the headquarters and 5 companies moved to Landguard Fort, 3 companies were detached at Woodbridge, and one at Saxmundham and Wickham. In a return dated 29th November, 1759, 133 recruits are shown as having joined; 79 came from London. The Regiment did not remain long in Suffolk, as in 1760 the headquarters and 5 companies were stationed at Fort William in Scotland, and 4 companies at Fort Augustus. In 1761 the whole Regiment was quartered at Fort George, but in the latter part of the year one company was detached at Forres in Elgin. During 1762 the headquarters and 5 companies were again stationed at Fort William, and 4 companies at Fort Augustus, where they remained until March 1763. All the companies were present at Fort William when the rolls were signed on 3rd May 1763, previous to their departure for Ireland.

The Regiment remained in Ireland for 5 years, but no muster-rolls or monthly returns are extant for that period. When orders were received to proceed to America they were quartered in Cashel [Co. Tipperary], and from there they marched to Cork Harbour for embarkation. A return signed at the latter place on the 5th September 1768, gives the strength as follows:

Return of the 64th Regiment lying on board of four transports in Cork harbour: 1 Col., 1 Lt. Col., 1 Major, 7 Capts., 9 Lts., 8 Ensigns, 1 adjutant, 1 surgeon, 1 mate, 18 serjeants, 9 drummers, and 423 rank and file.

In consequence of the disturbed state of the American Colonies in 1768 troops were sent out from home. On the 1st October of the latter year, two weak battalions (the 14th and 29th Regiments) barely 800 strong landed at Boston, and on the 16th and 17th November, 1768, the 64th and 65th Regiments arrived from Cork, and were quartered in some commodious stores on Wheelwright's Wharf. The muster rolls of the 64th for the six months ending the 24th April, 1769, were signed at Boston on April 25th. On the 5th May the 64th, with the 14th, and 29th Regiments were reviewed on the Common, and shortly after the 64th and 65th Regiments were ordered to proceed to Halifax, Nova Scotia. Four companies of the 64th embarked in the Launceston man-of-war (44 guns) on the 8th July, and sailed on the 25th for Halifax. Five companies embarked in the Romney man-of-war (50 guns) and sailed on the 27th. The Launceston arrived at Halifax on the 29th July, and the Romney on the 5th August. The muster rolls of the Regiment were signed at Halifax on the 24th October, 1770. On the 18th April, 1771 the Boston frigate, commanded by Captain Hyde Parker, arrived in Halifax with orders for Lieutenant-Colonel Bruce, of the 65th Regiment (who commanded there) to immediately embark the 64th and 65th Regiments for Boston. On the 23rd April four companies of the 64th embarked in the Boston, and one company and a half in the Senegal. Seven companies of the 65th embarked in the Mermaid and the Rose; the remainder of the regiments were divided among five transports. The reason of this sudden move was, war being considered imminent with Spain, the 64th and 65th Regiments had been selected to form part of a force assembling at Boston for an expedition against Louisiana.

When they reached Boston on the 5th and 6th May they were ordered back to Halifax, as intelligence had been received that a peaceful arrangement with Spain had been arrived at. So having been redistributed in the transports, they sailed on the 26th May, and arrived in Halifax on the 1st June.

When the 14th Regiment was ordered to proceed from Boston to the West Indies, the 64th was detailed to replace them. A detachment of the latter regiment arrived and took up quarters in Castle William before the 14th left in July, 1772; the remainder followed as soon as transports could be procured at Halifax, and by the end of August the whole regiment had arrived. Their new quarters at Castle William were situated on an island about three miles south-east of Boston, and here they remained until the evacuation of the city. The muster rolls for the last year the Regiment was at Halifax, and for the four succeeding years, were signed at Castle William. In March, 1774, Captain McLeroth's company was under orders to proceed to New Providence in the Bahamas to relieve a company of the 14th Regiment stationed there, but a ship of war not being available to take them, the move was countermanded. On the 31st May the Regiment was reviewed at Castle William by Major-General Gage; their effective strength at this time was low; each company consisted of 1 captain, 1 lieutenant, 1 ensign. 2 sergeants. 3 corporals, 1 drummer, and an average strength of 33 privates; the Grenadier company had two fifers on their establishment. During 1774 twenty-two desertions took place, but the regiment had lost fifty from this cause up to the 17th April of that year.

In 1774 the Massachusetts Assembly constituted themselves into a Congress and appointed a committee to organise the forces of the State, and collect warlike stores; they also formed a force called "minute men". General Gage, who had replaced Governor Hutchinson at Boston, knowing of these proceedings was obliged to take action. In September, 1774, he expeditiously seized two cannon and a quantity of powder at Cambridge, and on the 26th February, 1775, he dispatched Colonel Leslie and 200 of the 64th, it seems, from Castle William to capture certain military stores at Salem, but the expedition miscarried.

This incident is described in Trevelyan's "American Revolution" as follows:-

"Colonel Leslie sailed to Marblehead for the purpose of seizing some artillery which the provincials had deposited at Salem as a place of comparative security. He landed his detachment successfully on a Sunday morning, but when the alarm reached the nearest meeting house, the congregation turned out and took up a position upon some water which barred his route. They refused to lower the drawbridge on the plea that there was no public right of way across it, and when Leslie attempted to lay hands on a couple of barges, the owners proceeded to scuttle them. The soldiers drew their bayonets and inflicted some wounds, and only just enough to allow Salem to claim the honour of the first drop of blood which was shed in the revolution. A loyalist clergyman intervened. The people agreed to lower the bridge, and Leslie pledged his honour not to advance thirty rods beyond it. Brave to impudence when duty as well as danger lay clear before him, he was not prepared without specific orders from a high quarter to light a blaze. He recalled his men and re-embarked them, empty handed, just as a company of minute men from the next township, with plenty more of their like to follow, came marching to the help of Salem."

[Colonel the Honourable Alexander Leslie was born in 1731, and was the second son of the fifth Earl of Leven. He joined the 3rd Foot Guards in 1753, and in 1758 he appears as senior captain in the newly formed 64th Regiment. He obtained the command of the regiment on the 28th August, 1766, and served with it at Boston until the evacuation. His judgement was much trusted by General Gage, who consulted him frequently regarding the plans for defending Boston Neck, and part of his regiment, the 64th, formed General Gage's bodyguard at Danvers. Colonel Leslie, according to the orders dated April 1776, at Halifax, was appointed Aide-de-Camp to His Majesty, with the rank of Colonel in the Army and Brigadier-General in America. When the troops were brigaded before the battle of Long Island, in July 1776, he was appointed to command the Light Infantry Brigade. He served with distinction during the war, and was much trusted by Cornwallis, and at the seige of Charleston earned his lavish praise. He became a lieutenant-general in 1787, and honorary colonel of the 9th Regiment of Foot. He died in 1794. from the effects of a blow received during a riot in, or near, Glasgow, when second in command of the forces in Scotland.]

Soon after this General Gage received intelligence that a depot of munitions of war had been formed at Concord, some twenty miles from Boston, which he determined to destroy. For this purpose, on the night of the 18th April, he despatched the Grenadier and Light Infantry Companies belonging to the corps in Boston (which did not include those of the 64th), under Lieutenant-Colonel Smith. This led to the unfortunate affair of Concord or Lexington on the following day, when the British lost nine officers and 223 NCOs and men killed and wounded, besides 25 missing. After this the colonists took up arms, and Boston was immediately invested by 20,000 men, whose lines extended from Roxburg, on the right, to the Mystic River on the left - these were soon strengthened by redoubts and artillery. The troops in Boston were too weak to assume the offensive, and from the 20th April became closely blockaded in their lines. In June, it seems, an exchange of prisoners took place, as stated in the following extract from a letter written at Cambridge, New England, on 8th June, 1775, and published in the London Chronicle:

"Thursday last. being the day agreed on for the exchange of prisoners, between twelve and one o'clock Dr. Warren and Brigadier-General Putnam, in a phaeton (Americans), together with Major Dunbar and Lieutenant Hamilton, of the 64th, on horseback, and Lieutenant Potter, of the Marines, in a chaise, proceeded to Charlestown, in order to exchange the prisoners, after which the officers, with General Putnam and Doctor Warren, proceeded to the house of a Doctor Foster, where an entertainment was provided."

On the 24th May, 1775, Major-Generals Howe, Clinton, and Burgoyne arrived at Boston with six regiments, which brought the force there up to over 10,000 men, and the newly arrived commanders proposed to occupy and fortify Charlestown Neck. This idea having been made known to General Ward. the American Commander, he directed Colonel Putman to entrench himself on Bunkers Hill, but the latter took up a more forward position on Breeds Hill on the night of the 16th June, and there constructed a redoubt. On the following morning General Gage was surprised at the appearance of this work, and began preparations to dislodge the enemy. This led to the dearly-bought victory of Bunkers Hill, really Breeds Hill; ( but in which the 64th had no part). after which the British entrenched themselves near Charlestown Neck, and both sides, being secure in their positions. attempted nothing more than a distant cannonade. The 64th, on account of their isolated position on Castle Island, escaped the routine of the Boston garrison to a great extent, but they are often mentioned in General Howe's orderly book, in which the daily orders of the garrison in Boston and Charlestown are given.

The first order in the above work in which a 64th officer is mentioned is on the 25th July, 1775, when field officers were appointed to the Grenadiers and Light Infantry. Major Musgrave (64th) was posted to the Light Infantry. Then it states: "Major Mitchell to command the Grenadiers encamped at Boston, and Major Musgrave the Light Infantry." On the 11th September it states in orders: "The corps of Light Infantry, under the command of Major Musgrave, to march on Tuesday morning at 8 o'clock to join the troops on Charlestown Heights, under the command of Major-General Howe."

On the 10th October the latter General succeeded to the command on General Gage's return to England. Most of the orders refer to the troops in Boston and on Charlestown Heights only, but some apply to the 64th. On the 28th October we hear of the old Canadian remedy for scurvy advised in orders, as follows: "Spruce beer being recommended for the soldiers by the physicians of the hospital as a preservative against scurvy, the corps in Boston will receive from Mr. Goldthwaite spruce beer at the allowance 3 pints per day to each man, to be paid for by the soldiers at a dollar per barrel, containing, from 30 to 32 gallons, brewed with 5 quarts of molasses and 10 quarts of essence of spruce."

General courts-martial were frequent, the courts consisting of a field officer as president, and twelve members, which as a rule were captains. The sentences were severe, but discipline was difficult to maintain on account of the privations suffered, as the orders regarding plundering and pulling down houses to obtain firewood show.

On 10th November an increase in the establishment of regiments is directed in orders:

"His Majesty has been pleased to direct that the regiments in America (the 18th and 59th excepted) be forthwith augmented by an addition to each of the 10 companies of 1 sergeant, 1 drum, and 18 private men; as also that 2 companies, each consisting of 1 captain, 1 lieutenant, 1 ensign, 3 sergeants, 3 corporals, 2 drummers, and 56 private men, should be added to each of the said regiments." Orders. 20th November: "In consequence of the augmentation His Majesty has been pleased to make in his Regiments of Foot serving in North America, the following establishments is to take place the 25th August, 1775: Establishment of a battalion of 12 companies: 1 colonel, 1 Lieutenant-colonel, 1 major, 9 captains, 14 lieutenants, 10 ensigns, 1 chaplain, 1 adjutant, 1 quarter-master, 1 surgeon, 1 mate, 36 sergeants, 36 corporals, 24 drummers, 2 fifers, 672 privates, including 3 contingent men per company; total 855."

The 2 newly formed companies remained in England as a depot. On the 21st January, 1776, the following appears in orders:- "The commanding officers will avoid sending soldiers upon advanced guards that have not served 1 year at least, nor is any soldier under that time of service upon any account to be posted as sentry next the enemy. That duty must be taken as a post of honour by the most experienced soldiers upon the guard, being a post of the first consequence."

The scale of provisions is stated in the orders of the 5th January. The following allowance was presumably for one man per week: "7 pds. flour, for which the baker gives 9 pds. bread; 1 pd. dryed cod fish (in lieu of 1 pd. salt beef, or 9 oz. salt pork); 3 pds. pork, 3 pints oat meal or pease, 1 oz. oil, 5 oz. butter, 1 pd. 14 oz. flour more (in lieu of 7 oz. pork), and 8 oz. rice."

On the 7th February, 1776, the commanding officers of corps were directed to provide the sergeants with firelocks, if they have them to spare, if not they were to apply to the artillery for carbines. It appears, however, that on the 13th February short muskets were issued to sergeants. On the 29th February it states in orders:- "Regiments when formed by companies or battalions, or when on the General Parade, are always to have their files 18 inches distant from each other, which they will take care to practice for the future, being the order in which they are to engage the enemy." These orders are significant, and seem to have been given with regard to the character of the enemy they had to deal with, whose good shooting rendered a looser formation necessary, as the following extract from Trevelyan's "American Revolution" shows - "In July and August (1775) the Southern riflemen marched into Washington's camp - stout, hardy men, who had trudged [up to] 700 miles to have a shot at the regulars. On the way north they had shown their skill at a review. One of their companies, while advancing in skirmishing order, had put a good proportion of balls into a mark 7 inches broad at a distance of 250 yards. A wonderful performance for those days."

"Headquarters, Boston, 11th February, 1776.

The Commander in Chief desires to return his thanks to Colonel Leslie and Major Musgrave (64th officers) for their planning and conducting the service of last night, and to the officers and soldiers of the detachment under their command for their spirited behaviour on the occasion. He also highly approves of the alacrity of the troops in general last night, and of their soldier-like manner in getting under arms without the least noise or confusion. Such steady behaviour plainly indicates the powerful superiority they must ever preserve over the enemy we have to contend with when an opportunity shall offer to determine it."

Orders, 15th February:- "Major Musgrave will give in a return to the Deputy Quarter-master-General of the detachment that was under his command on the morning of the 14th, including the men that carried the biers and artillery. likewise those artillery men that were with Colonel Leslie, that they may receive a pair of shoes and stockens each. Colonel Leslie will give a return of the detachment of the 64th for the same purpose."

The above service is alluded to by Fotheringham in his "Seige of Boston as follows: "A party of the British from the Castle and another from Boston, several hundred Grenadiers and Light Infantry, crossed over (14th February) to Dorchester Neck to surprise the American guard there, 70 in number, and nearly succeeded. The guard barely escaped, the houses were burned, and two persons captured."

The winter had been so mild that but little ice had formed on the waters round Boston, but at length in the middle of February it froze hard enough to bear troops, and Washington having received a number of large guns, a heavy fire was kept up. Under cover of one of these cannonades on the night of the 4th March the enemy marched a force over to Dorchester Heights, which commanded Boston from the south, and next morning two forts on these were visible. The Heights had not been occupied by the British commander on account of the weak state of the garrison, which now amounted to only 6,646 men fit for duty. But Howe saw the necessity of taking the Heights if he was to remain in Boston. For this purpose 2,100 men were told off on the morning of the 5th March, under Earl Percy (the 64th was not one of the regiments detailed). The rendezvous was at Castle Island, which was about 900 yards, from Dorchester Point, but the weather became so bad that any attempt at landing was impossible. All next day the storm continued, and the attack had to be abandoned which, indeed, had little prospect of success, as the works on Dorchester Heights were garrisoned by 1,000 men, and Washington had another body of 1,000 at Cambridge, ready to embark in boats when the assault commenced to attack Boston under cover of floating batteries, which he had constructed. It would appear Howe had meditated a night attack, as orders said: "Clerk's and Musgrave's corps of Light Infantry, Agnew's and Wemy's Grenadiers, 23rd and 38th Regiments, to parade this evening (5th March) at 7 o'clock, and be ready for embarkation": and in next day's orders it states: "The General desires the troops to know that the intended expedition last night was unavoidably put off by the badness of the weather."

Howe resolved on the 7th March to evacuate Boston, on which date the voluminous orders for the embarkation commenced. These do not much concern the 64th Regiment at Castle William, where they must have been at work dismantling or demolishing the Castle, for the Americans commenced restoring it after the evacuation. The 64th probably embarked on the same day as the army (16th March), and on Sunday, 17th, the transports, crowded with refugees as well as with troops, sailed for Halifax without being molested by the enemy's guns.

The strength of the 64th Regiment on embarkation at Boston was as follows:- 1 Lt-Col, 1 Major, 7 Captains, 16 Subalterns, 3 staff, 27 sergeants, 14 drummers, 319 rank and file fit for duty, 17 sick present, 4 sick absent, 6 recruiting or on furlough.

There is a break in the "Orderly Book" between the 16th and 30th March, during the time the transports were at sea, and orders again appear on the latter date at Halifax. Those then issued refer chiefly to the discipline and administration of the troops in port. On the 3rd April 1776 they state:- "Quarters being prepared in the town for the troops, when ready, as many men as they will contain will be brought on shore: in the meantime the Commanding Officers of Corps will air their men when the weather permits on George's Island... They will take their arms for exercise, or to fire at marks as they will think proper. A proportion of officers always to remain on board the transports till they are evacuated." The same orders also state:- "The King having been graciously pleased to appoint the Hon. Lieut.-Colonel Leslie, of the 64th Regiment, to be his Majesty's Aide-de-Camp with the rank of Colonel in the Army. Colonel Leslie will take rank as Brigadier-General in the Army in America under the command of Major -General Howe." The following practical order appears on the 6th April:- "One Subaltern and 24 rank and file of the R.F.A. [Royal Fencible Americans] Regiment will be employed in catching fish for the use of the troops; they are to go aboard such vessels as the D.Q.Mr.-General shall direct. It is recommended to the officer who has voluntarily undertaken to superintend this necessary piece of service for the good of the whole Army to pay every attention to it in his power."

Orders 12th April state:- "The six companies of Light Infantry, that were under the command of Major Musgrave, to be joined by the light companies of the 27th and 64th on the Citadel Hill at nine o'clock tomorrow morning; if the weather be fair Major Musgrave will exercise them." It appeared in orders repeatedly that the troops were to be exercised, the place of assembly being on the Citadel Hill. Major Musgrave of the 64th Regiment, must have been an expert drill, as he was frequently detailed in orders to drill the Grenadiers and Light Infantry. Earl Percy generally superintended the drill of the Regiments, which paraded by brigades, three battalions in each. When Regiments were ordered out for exercise they were not to be joined by their Light or Grenadier Companies unless particularly ordered.

The orders of the 26th April give the rate of stoppages for rations on board ship. When for sea the stoppage was 1 3/4d., and l/2d. necessary money to the master; when in port at full allowance the ration was 2 l/2d., and necessary money l/2d.

On the 14th May the following order appears:- "The Commander-in-Chief is pleased to form the Grenadiers and Light Infantry Companies into four battalions." The Grenadiers of the 64th Regiment were included in the second Grenadier Battalion, of which Lieut.-Colonel Monckton and Major Steward were the field officers. The Light Company of the 64th was in the second battalion of the Light Infantry, the field officers being Major Maitland and Major Strobenzie. Major Musgrave of the 64th, commanded the first battalion of Light Infantry. [The flank companies of the 64th Regiment remained in these battalions during the war]

Orders, May 17th, appoints Captain Lewis, of the 64th, a major of brigade: he was posted to the Light Infantry Brigade. In the orders of May 18th the distribution of transports appear: the Father's Goodwill and Stephenson were told off to the 64th Regiment to carry 362 men of the battalion companies. The Grenadiers and Light Infantry were in separate transports.

Comforts for the troops were sent out sometimes from home even in those far off days, as the following appears in the orders of May 20th:- "An extensive and generous subscription having been commenced and continued in Great Britain for the encouragement and relief of the troops employed in the present most important service in America, the object and progress of which will be explained by a printed paper delivered to every corps." In the next day's orders commanding officers of the regiments that served at Boston were directed to order their quarter-masters to attend Quarter-master Gratton, of the 64th, on board the Renown ship, to receive their proportions of shoes, stockings, and caps sent by the society for the relief of the soldiers.

Orders, 22nd May. direct commanding officers to get the baggage on board the transports, as the troops were to embark on the 27th.

Orders, 24th, state:-"The Army is to be completed to two flints per man, the regiments to receive one flint per man, but two for the Grenadiers and Light Infantry." [The Americans had a great advantage in one respect. The black flints which they used for their firearms were very superior to those served out to the British. These black flints were "in the hammer of every gentleman's fowling piece" in England, yet European armies generally used poor quality flints lasting a tenth of the number of rounds black flint could sustain (60, according to some).] It appears that the antiquated wooden ramrods were still in use in the British Army, as a return was to be given in of the number of arms in the ranks with wooden ramrods, which were to be exchanged for others.

The last orders in the "Orderly Book" are dated 26th May. They direct "The Grenadiers and battalions of the Line in future to form in three ranks, with the files as formerly ordered at 18 inches interval."

The troops had for the most part been cooped upon board ship, as there was not sufficient accommodation for them on shore, and General Howe, anxious to get away from a dreary place and uncomfortable situation, without waiting for the reinforcements which were to arrive from home, set sail, in June 1776. with his Boston troops, for Staten Island, south of New York. It seems the intention was to capture the latter city, and hold the line of the Hudson River, which, if accomplished, would isolate the New England Colonies, and facilitate their reduction. The plan of campaign, though well conceived, was never carried out, as other schemes were allowed to intefere with it. General Howe and his troops arrived at Staten Island on the 3rd July, including over two thousand Highlanders, which he picked up at sea. Three thousand had been shipped from Glasgow, but a fourth part were captured by American privateers. The muster-rolls of the 64th Regiment were signed on the l5th July, 1776 at Staten Island. Eight companies were stationed at Amboy Ferry in the south of the island, one company at Richmond, and one simply shown as being at Staten Island; the two last named were the flank companies detached with the flank battalions. [It would be difficult to trace all the movements of the flank companies, as they were absorbed in the flank battalions, and to all intents and purposes formed part of separate corps for the time being.] In August six battalion companies were stationed at a farm belonging to Captain Billopps (who was a zealous Loyalist) opposite Amboy, and two companies at a house near Brigadier-General Agnew's headquarters; each company numbered 36 rank and file. On the 1st August Sir Henry Clinton, and Lord Cornwallis arrived with seven regiments from South Carolina, where an unsuccessful attack on Charleston had been made. Lord Howe, the Naval Commander-in-Chief, also arrived from England on the 12th August, with 1,000 Guardsmen, formed in two battalions, and 9,000 Hessians.

When all the troops had assembled on Staten island, they amounted to 30,000 men, and were then organised in brigades, and commanded as follows:

1st Brigade: 4th, 15th, 27th, and 45th Regiments; Major-General Pigot.

2nd Brigade: 5th, 28th, 35th, and 49th Regiments; Brigadier-General Agnew.

3rd Brigade: l0th, 37th, 38th, and 52nd Regiments; Major-General Jones.

4th Brigade: 17th, 40th, 46th, and 55th Regiments; Major-General Grant.

5th Brigade: 22nd, 43rd, 54th, and 63rd Regiments; Brigadier-General Smith.

6th Brigade: 23rd, 44th, 57th, and 64th Regiments; Major-General Robertson.

7th Brigade: 7lst Regiment, New York companies, and some Hessian troops; Brigadier-General Erskine.

Light troops: four battalions Light Infantry: Brigadier-General Leslie.

Reserve: three battalions Grenadiers, the 33rd and 42nd Regiments; Lord Cornwallis and Brigadier-General Vaughan.

Guards: two battalions; Major-General Mathews.

Artillery & Engineers: Brigadier-General Cleveland.

Hessians: Lieut.-General de Hester and Count Von Donop.

The British marching regiments for the American service were to consist of twelve companies of 56 effective rank and file each, two companies of each battalion to remain in Great Britain and Ireland for recruiting. In January, 1777, the two 64th Depot Companies were stationed at Charles Fort, Trowbridge. Orders were previously issued from the War Office that anyone enlisting in the marching regiments should serve three years, or during the war, at the option of his Majesty.

Soon after the evacuation of Boston, Washington arrived in New York with part of his army, and made every effort to complete the defences necessary for the protection of the city. Redoubts and batteries were constructed, and the heights of Brooklyn on Long Island, which commanded New York, were protected on the land side by a line of entrenchments about a mile in length, which extended from the swamps of Wallabout Bay on the north to Gowanus Creek on the south. To hold all these works Washington had only 20,300 men fit for duty, not half of which were Continental troops (American Regulars), the rest being Militia; one-third of this force (7,000 men) was stationed in the lines at Brooklyn. After a delay of nearly seven weeks on Staten Island, General Howe on the 22nd August moved 15,000 men over to Long Island, where supplies were more abundant. The troops landed in Gravesend Bay, about eight miles south of Brooklyn, and Lord Cornwallis with the reserve, two battalions of Light Infantry, Von Donop's Hessian Chasseurs, and Grenadiers, pushed forward to the hamlet of Flatbush, which was situated at the foot of a long ridge. The remainder of the army encamped some three miles in rear, between the hamlets of Utrecht and Flatlands. The ridge already mentioned was thickly wooded, and ran in a north-easterly direction for seven or eight miles in front of the Brooklyn lines, from which it was distant about two miles at the nearest point. It was traversed by three roads; one which led from Flatbush divided near the ridge and crossed it at two passes. The other lay nearly four miles to the east of Flatbush, and led from the village of Jamaica to Bedford in rear of the ridge, which latter it crossed at a defile called "The Jamaica Pass." Another road leading from Gravesend and Utrecht to Gowanus Bay ran near the coast, skirting the western extremity of the ridge.

The Americans held the passes. but neglected to occupy the defile on their left, "The Jamaica Pass," the consequences of which were disastrous.

On the 26th, Lieut.-General de Hester, with two brigades of Hessians from Staten Island, relieved Lord Cornwallis at Flatbush, when the latter retired to Flatlands. In the meantime, Howe, having made dispositions for attacking the enemy, put his troops in motion the same evening. About nine o'clock Lieut.-General Clinton, with the Light Infantry Brigade and Light Dragoons, followed by Cornwallis, with the Grenadiers, 71st Regiment, first Brigade, and 14 guns, marched from Flatlands across country and arrived near the Jamaica Pass before daybreak on the 27th; the main body, consisting of the Guards, the second, third, and fifth Brigades, with 14 guns, under Earl Percy, marched soon after the vanguard. General Howe accompanied this column, which numbered about 10,000 men; it was destined to turn the enemy's left, and come in on the rear of their position, on the wooded ridge. Lieut.-General de Hester, with 6,000 Hessians, was directed to make a demonstration opposite the Flatbush defile, until such time as the turning movement was completed. Major-General Grant, with the fourth and sixth Brigades, the 42nd Regiment, two companies of the New York Provincials, and ten guns, numbering about 5,000 men, advanced by the coast road, with orders to distract the enemy's attention from the danger threatening their left. At midnight Grant attacked the enemy's pickets, with much clamour and firing, and at daybreak - about three o'clock - opened fire with his artillery, and then sent forward his skirmishers. On hearing the firing. Lord Stirling (one of the American Brigadiers) was hurried forward with five regiments to oppose Grant, and in the hills, near the present Greenwood Cemetery, the severest fighting during the day took place. The ammunition of the British at one time became exhausted, and they had to halt near the edge of the wood, but fortunately Admiral Howe landed some of his sailors with a supply of cartridges, which they carried up the hill to the troops engaged. General de Hester also opened fire soon after daybreak, and Major-General Putnam, who commanded in the line at Brooklyn, despatched Major-General Sullivan with a small reinforcement, which was quite inadequate, to check the vastly greater force of the Hessians advancing from Flatlands. Meanwhile, General Clinton, finding that the Jamaica Pass was unoccupied, took possession of it at daybreak, and having rested his men a little, pushed on and arrived at Bedford about 8:30 am. Here he had a skirmish with three American regiments, which retreated towards Brooklyn lines. The Grenadiers and 33rd Regiment followed until within musket range of the works, and were with difficulty restrained from attacking them. At Bedford, Clinton turned to the left with the Dragoons and Light Infantry, and attacked General Sullivan in flank and rear, while the Hessians advanced against him in front. Sullivan ordered a retreat, and most of his troops escaped through the woods, but he himself. together with some hundreds of his men, were taken prisoners. About 11 o'clock, Stirling, hearing the firing on his left and rear, commenced to retire towards the bridge over Gowan's Creek, but it had been already burnt by some retreating party, and Cornwallis, who had passed in rear of Clinton, with the 2nd Grenadiers and 7lst Highlanders, had taken post in a defile on the road leading to the bridge. Stirling, seeing that his retreat was cut off, ordered his men to escape across the swamp as best they could, while he engaged Cornwallis with five companies of the fine Maryland Regiment, which were dressed in scarlet and buff, and were well appointed. For half an hour they made a stout resistance, but Grant and de Hester coming up, the gallant corps, with the exception of nine men, were all slain or captured, and Lord Stirling gave up his sword to General de Hester. The Americans who had escaped from the field were all within the Brooklyn lines about two o'clock, where the remaining part of the Army on Long Island side had been stationed, and never brought into action.

Washington, who had arrived in the lines during the action, sent to New York for six regiments. and when these arrived he had 9,000 men available to resist any assault. The Americans had less than 5,000 men engaged. and of these 1,697 were taken prisoners, including 91 officers, and Washington believed that the killed and wounded amounted to about 1,000. The British lost five officers, three sergeants, and 53 men killed: 11 officers, 11 sergeants, three drummers and 231 men wounded. The Hessians had only 28 casualties. The 64th regiment lost no officers, and the casualties amongst rank and file are not shown separately. The flank companies must have been actively engaged, as the flank battalions were to the front in the turning movement. In the evening the British encamped in front of the American lines, and as Howe would not risk an assault, he commenced siege operations. Acordingly. on the night of the 28th, the first parallel was opened at a distance of 600 yards from the enemy's works. On account of a north-east wind the ships of war could not take the defences in reverse; and on the 29th, Washington, taking advantage of a dark rainy night. transported with much skill his whole force over the East River to New York. At daylight on the 30th, the British took possession of the lines, but were only in time to fire a few shots at the boats containIng the rear guard. As soon as the Americans had left, General Howe distributed his forces along the East River, and made preparations for crossing over to the New York side. After a fortnight's delay,on the 15th September. under cover of a heavy fire of grape from the ships of war, 84 barges, under the orders of Clinton. Cornwallis, and Von Donop. started from Newtown inlet, laden with Light Infantry and Hessian Grenadiers. "The signal was given, and the flotilla spread itself into line, and swept forward to the hostile shore."

Washington had stationed his most reliable troops on Harlem Heights, where they were entrenched, also a considerable force at King's Bridge, 16 miles above New York, as he thought that Howe would probably attack from Westchester. At the same time he placed five brigades of Militia along the shores of the East River, in order to oppose any landing in that direction. About 11 o'clock the British landed in Kip's Bay, and the enemy - who had been driven from their entrenchments by grape-shot - together with two supporting brigades, retreated towards Harlem. The remaining three brigades, which were stationed south of Kip's Bay, and the troops in New York also retired and got safely away, although the island was not 3,000 yards wide, and they might have been intercepted without difficulty; their losses were small, consisting mostly of prisoners, which were taken by the Hessians. In the afternoon the British advanced, and at dark took up a position across New York Island from Bloomingdale, through McGowan's Pass, to Horn's Hook. Next day, September 16th, an action took place, which is known as the battle of Harlem Heights. The British troops engaged were the second and third battalions of Light Infantry, the 42nd Regiment, and some of Von Donop's Yagers; Brigadier-General Leslie (Lieut.-Colonel 64th Regiment) was in command. Not more than 1,800 men were engaged on each side, and the action ended without any decisive result. The British had 14 killed and 157 wounded, and the Americans 30 killed and 100 wounded. Earl Percy, with the third Division, which consisted of the Guards, the second and sixth Brigades - the 64th Regiment being in the latter - was encamped, it appears, to the right rear of the Army near the East River. General Howe fortified his position across the island, and for nearly four weeks remained inactive; however on the 12th October he made a move, for the purpose of passing round Washington's left flank. The Third Division, under Earl Percy, was left in charge of the fortified lines, opposite Harlem Heights, and the remainder of the Army was transported to New Rochelle, in Westchester, where they were encamped from the 18th to the 21st October. In order to counteract Howe's design, Washington marched his troops over King's Bridge to a position about eight miles north of New Rochelle, called White Plains, where he assembled 13,000 men, and threw up entrenchments. Howe advanced on the 25th towards White Plains, then halted, and after a delay of three days gave orders for battle.

On Washington's right front lay some high ground called Chatterton Hill, which commanded the plain in front of the American lines, and was separated from the main position by the river Bronx. Howe considered it unwise to attack until he had gained possession of this hill; accordingly, on the 28th, Brigadier-General Leslie, with the second British Brigade, forded the Bronx river, and advanced against the Heights, while three Hessian battalions moved to the left, and turned the enemy's right flank. The hill was captured, the British losing 159 in killed and wounded, and the Hessians 77; the Americans estimated their own loss at 200. A position was thus secured from which the right of the enemy's lines could be threatened, but Howe hesitated, and waited for reinforcements, thereby losing an opportunity of defeating Washington which did not occur again.

The sixth Brigade had been moved from Harlem on the 22nd October, to hold the post of Mamaroneck, on the coast, some five miles south of White Plains, and about the same time the second Division of Hessians, 1,000 strong, under Lieut.-General Knyphausen, arrived from Europe. This Division, with the fourth Brigade, and two battalions of the sixth Brigade, also the 16th and 17th Light Dragoons, reinforced Howe, which brought his strength up to 20,000 men, and on the 3lst he gave orders for the attack on the enemy's lines to be made on the 1st November. However the battle never came off; a storm came on, and Washington, whose position had many defects, being neither strong by nature or art, withdrew under cover of the tempest on the night of the 3lst, and took post on the heights of North Castle, a few miles in rear. On the 4th November, the sixth Brigade retired to Westchester, and were quartered near de Lancey's Mills. Howe did not follow Washington, but on the 5th moved to Dobb's Ferry, on the Hudson, where he had ordered some of the ships of war to meet him. A few days after he marched south, and having previously arranged a combined attack on Fort Washington, situated in the northern part of Manhattan, or New York Island, captured it on the 16th November, with 2,818 prisoners. The second Battalion of Grenadiers and the second Light Infantry formed part of one of the assailing columns.

Two days afterwards Cornwallis crossed the Hudson with twelve regiments and took possession of Fort Lee (opposite Fort Washington), which the Americans had just abandoned; he then followed them to Hackensac, where Washington had arrived from North Castle with a force much demoralised, and deserting in numbers. From Hackensac the Americans retreated to New Brunswick, on the Rariton River, where they were on the point of being overtaken by Cornwallis, when the latter received orders from General Howe to halt until he himself came up. When he joined Cornwallis, on the 1st December, he did not continue the pursuit for a week, and only arrived at Trenton, on the Delaware, on the 8th, a few hours after Washington, with the remains of his army, then reduced to about 3,000 men, had crossed over to the other side. Howe now put his troops into winter quarters, several brigades, with the Grenadiers and Light Infantry, being located in and about Princeton and New Brunswick; the muster rolls of the 64th flank companies were signed at the latter place in April, 1777. Six regiments of Hessians held the line of the Delaware, three of these being quartered in Trenton, under Colonel Rall. The sixth Brigade was stationed at Harlem, and General Clinton, with 6,000 men, was sent to Newport, in Rhode Island, from which place it was intended to invade New England in the spring. Sir Guy Carleton had started with an expedition from Canada early in October, in order to co-operate with General Howe, and he advanced as far as Crown Point, at the south end of Lake Champlain, but his progress was unduly delayed, and an attempt to reach Albany, on the Hudson, was prevented by the lateness of the season, so on the 3rd November he commenced his return march to Canada. After the capture of Forts Lee and Washington, the despondency of the Americans was such that Howe, with a comparatively small force, aided by the fleet, might have ascended the Hudson to Albany without meeting much opposition, while the main body of the Army pursued Washington. The New England Colonies would have been thus separated from the remainder, and if this course had been followed the war probably would have been ended in the following spring.

The British had hardly settled down in their winter quarters when Washington by a brilliant stroke changed the whole situation. On Christmas night he crossed the Delaware with 2,400 men, and surprised the Hessians in Trenton, killing and wounding about 100, and taking 900 prisoners; Colonel Rall, their commanding officer, died of his wounds the next day. When Cornwallis, who was in New York, heard of this disaster, he hastened to Princeton, where 8,000 troops had already assembled. On the 2nd January, 1777, he started for Trenton before daylight, with about 6,000 men, including the Grenadiers, Light Infantry, Highlanders, and Germans. (The flank companies of the 64th must have been present with the flank battalions.) Cornwallis advanced in three columns along the main road through Maidenhead, the light Infantry and Hessian Chasseurs leading. The second Brigade, under Brigadier-General Leslie, remained at Maidenhead to secure the communications. Stiff opposition was met with, as Washington, who had taken up a strong position behind the Assapink Creek, just south of Trenton, had sent two brigades towards Maidenhead to delay the British, and it took the latter two hours to effect the passage of the Shabakunk Creek, where artillery had to be brought up to dislodge the enemy. Cornwallis arrived in Trenton during the afternoon, when some fighting took place, and he attempted the passage of the bridges over the Assapink Creek, but finding the American position too strong to attack in front with any chance of success, he decided to await the arrival of the second and fourth Brigades in the morning before taking further action. Washington, however, withdrew his troops during the night, and making a detour eastwards by the Quaker road, arrived near Princeton on the morning of 3rd January, where he met and defeated the fourth Brigade, which was marching towards Trenton. When Cornwallis found that Washington had left his position he made all haste to Princeton, but although the Light Infantry arrived at the southern end of the village while the enemy's rear guard was still in sight, the latter had got too good a start, and could not be overtaken. Washington made his way to Morristown, where he went into winter quarters, and remained until the end of May.

The British concentrated all the troops they had in New Jersey in two large garrisons of 5,000 men each, one of which was at New Brunswick, and the other at Perth Amboy, and for months no movement took place. The Royal troops suffered much during the winter on account of the severe weather, hard duty, and the difficulty of procuring forage and provisions, as the American partisans overran the country , and food and fuel could only be obtained by fighting for it. The effective strength of the 64th Regiment on the 8th January, 1777, was one Lieut.-Colonel, one Major, seven Captains, ten Lieutenants, four Ensigns, 28 Serjeants, 17 Drummers, and 483 rank and file; the sick and those employed on various duties amounted to 50. With the return of spring active operations recommenced. The Americans were known to have formed large magazines of warlike stores at Peekskill, situated some forty miles up the Hudson River. These stores it was decided to destroy; accordingly on the 22nd March, a force of 500 men, consisting of detachments from the l5th, 23rd, 44th, and 64th Regiments - then stationed in New York - with 50 artillerymen and four field pieces, all under Colonel Bird, of the 15th Regiment, embarked on board four transports, and proceeded up the Hudson under convoy of the Brune frigate. The expedition reached Peekskill the next afternoon, and on its approach several hundred Americans were seen drawn up, but these retired after setting fire to their mills, forage yards, and buildings, containing an immense quantity of military stores. When the troops landed they completed the destruction of the magazines, barracks, workshops, &c., bringing off only some of the most valuable articles, not a man being lost or hurt on the occasion.

About a month later an expedition on a larger scale was undertaken with a similar object. Information having been received that the Americans had collected large magazines at Danbury, in Connecticut, an expedition was sent off in order to effect their destruction. It consisted of 250 men from each of the following regiments, which belonged to the first and sixth Brigades:- The 4th, 15th, 27th, 23rd, 44th & 64th Regiments, a subaltern's command of Dragoons, 300 of Governor Brown's Corps, and six 3-pounder guns. The troops, which numbered 2,000 men, were under the orders of Governor Tryon, Brigadier Agnew, and Sir William Erskine. The force proceeded up the East River, and landed near Fairfield at 6 pm on the 25th April. About 10 pm the troops started on their march through the woods for Danbury, which place they reached after a twenty-five mile march at three o'clock on the 26th. The rest of the day was employed in destroying the stores and burning the houses, and at 9 am on the 27th the return march commenced. In the meantime the local Militia had collected and about 11 am 200 of these, under General Wooster, attacked the rear of the British column. After a sharp skirmish they were beaten off, and their commander mortally wounded. Two miles further on a force of some 400 men, under Brigadier-General Arnold, was found barring the way at Ridgefield, and here fighting for an hour took place. The Americans describe the British coming on in a column, with large flank guards of 200 men in each, and with three field-pieces in front and three in rear. The enemy were finally outflanked and driven from their position, the British using their artillery in both encounters. The troops encamped for the night, and next morning continued their march at four o'clock, but the whole country was now up in arms, and they were galled by musketry as they proceeded, and in the afternoon by artillery. The road by which the British were returning passed over Saugatuck Bridge, which crossed the river of the same name a few miles from the coast. At this point about 500 Americans had collected in the morning with four guns, and under the direction of Brigadier Arnold took up a position on the road about two miles above the bridge, and there awaited the approach of the British.

Presently the latter were attacked in rear by another party of 500 men, and finding General Arnold advantageously posted in front, they turned to the left and forded the Saugatuck some three miles above the bridge already mentioned, then moving down the left flank rapidly - running full speed one account says - passed the turning to the bridge before the enemy could cross it to intercept them. The Americans, who had now collected in strength, formed at the bridge, and pursued in two columns, one on each side of the British; and for three hours smart skirmishing took place, accompanied by artillery fire. At length the Hill of Compo was reached, which was only half a mile from the point of embarkation. From this position the Americans, whom the British estimated at 4,000, tried to dislodge them, but the latter, although fearfully exhausted, mustered 100 of the most able under General Erskine, and charged with the bayonet, when the enemy were routed. No further attempt was made to disturb the embarkation, which was covered by the Marines. The British had ten officers and 200 men killed and wounded, including Captain Carter, Ensign Mercer, and eleven men of the 64th Regiment wounded. The Americans are stated to have lost 100 killed, 250 wounded, and 50 prisoners.

During the winter and early spring, the English Cabinet had formed a plan for the ensuing campaign in America. It was arranged that an expedition from Canada should proceed down the lakes to Albany, where it was to be joined be a smaller one from Oswego. At the same time Sir William Howe was to move up the Hudson to Albany, and meet the northern expedition under General Burgoyne there. It was thus hoped to effect the isolation and reduction of the New England Colonies, which was the chief stronghold of the revolution, but by some extraordinary oversight General Howe never received any definite instructions regarding the part he was to play in the projected campaign.

However, Howe had another objective in view; he had been informed that the inhabitants of Pennsylvania were more or less favourable to the British cause, and accordingly he made up his mind to make a move on Philadelphia. He had also been told by the home authorities, before the northern campaign had been arranged, that there was no objection to the undertaking.

[General Howe knew that it was intended he should move on Albany and co-operate with Burgoyne, as the latter had written three letters to him, one from Plymouth in April, one from Montreal in May, and one from Crown Point in June, in each of which he had advised Howe of the instructions he had received to force his way to Albany and effect a junction with him. Howe received all three letters at New York, and before leaving for Philadelphia he sent Burgoyne a reply stating that "after your arrival at Albany the movements of the enemy will guide yours." Burgoyne was thus left to his fate.]

Howe first determined to bring Washington to an engagement, and for this purpose transported a portion of his army from Staten Island over to the Jerseys. He then crossed the Rariton River on the 13th June, with 10,000 men, and advanced some way on the road to Philadelphia, as if his object was the capture of that city. Washington meanwhile had taken up a strong position at Middlebrook, on the Rariton, about ten miles from New Brunswick, and rightly believing Howe's southward movement to be only a feint, did not attack. The British commander, after some manoeuvres, finding it impossible to bring on an action, returned on the 30th June to Staten Island, and commenced to put his troops on board some 266 transports and ships of war, in order to convey them by sea to a point from which he could advance on Philadelphia. [The 64th embarked in the transports Father's Goodwill, 333 tons, and the Hartfield 404 tons.] The expeditionary force consisted of 25 British and seven German battalions, the Queen's Rangers, and 16th Light Dragoons, in all about 18,000 men. The infantry included four British Line brigades; these had been newly brigaded on the 8th May, 1777, and the fourth Brigade consisted of the 33rd, 37th, 46th, and 64th Regiments, commanded by Brigadier-General Agnew. By the 5th July Howe's troops were all embarked, and a fortnight later nearly all the vessels of the great fleet had dropped down from New York to the lower bay. On the 23rd July the armament sailed, and by the 30th the greater part had arrived in the estuary of the Delaware. Instead of effecting a landing in that river, which could have been carried out at Newcastle, a place only thirteen miles from where the troops were eventually put on shore, the fleet was brought round to Chesapeake Bay, which was reached on the 16th August, and nine more days were spent in ascending its intricate waters, the disembarkation only commencing on the 25th August, on the northern shore of the Elk River.

Washington had been much perplexed regarding Howe's movements, being uncertain whether the latter intended going to Albany or striking at Philadelphia. He first moved north, but when he heard that the transports had sailed he proceeded to the Delaware. After much marching and counter-marching, intelligence was received that the fleet was in the Chesapeake, on which Washington marched through Philadelphia, and posted his army at Wilmington, near the mouth of the Brandywine River. The British troops had all landed by the evening of the 26th August, but from that time it rained continuously for thirty-six hours, rendering the roads impassable, and spoiling the biscuits, and ammunition served out to the troops. By the 3rd September, the van, consisting of the 2nd Light Infantry, the Hessian and Anspack Chasseurs, had advanced as far as Iron Hill near the head of Elk River, where they came in contact with a picked body of Americans, and some local Militia, about 1,000 strong, under General Maxwell. A warm encounter ensued, which resulted in the enemy being driven back, with considerable loss; the British had three men killed, two officers, and 19 men wounded. On the 8th September Howe moved past Washington's right flank in order to cut his communications, but the latter retreated on the 9th behind the Brandywine, and marching twelve miles up the left bank, halted at Chad's Ford, where the highway leading to Philadelphia crosses the river. Here Washington made dispositions for holding the line of the Brandywine with his available force, some 11,000 strong. General Wayne was to hold the ford, which was guarded by some entrenchments and three batteries. Green was also posted near with two brigades, while Sullivan, with three Divisions was stationed two miles further up the river, in order to watch the fords as far as the forks of the Brandywine. On the l0th Howe made a long march to Kennet Square, which is about eight miles from Chad's Ford. He now divided his force into two columns, the one on the right under Lieut.-General Knyphausen, nearly 7,000 strong, consisted of the first and second British Brigades, four battalions of Hessians, three of the Fraser Highlanders, the Queen's Rangers, Ferguson's Riflemen, one squadron of the 16th Light Dragoons, six 12-pounder guns, and four howitzers, besides the battalion guns. This column was to attack at Chad's Ford, and engage the enemy's attention, while the other made a turning movement. The larger column, commanded by Cornwallis, about 10,000 strong, consisted of the third and fourth British Brigades, two battalions each of Guards, Grenadiers, and Light Infantry, three battalions of Hessians, mounted and unmounted Chasseurs, and two squadrons of the 16th Light Dragoons. At five o'clock on the morning of the 11th September, Knyphausen started with his column. About ten o'clock he encountered General Maxwell on the near side of the ford, and drove his men over the river; he then planted his batteries, and engaged the American guns on the other side, and for four hours made ostensible preparations br passing the ford. The column under Cornwallis, which was accompanied by General Howe, started at four o'clock in the morning, and proceeding northwards, crossed the west branch of the Brandywine at Trimble's Ford. One or two miles further on, the eastern branch of the same river was passed at Jeffrey's Ford; then turning south-east as far as Osborne's Hill, the troops halted and commenced to form, having traversed 16 miles of difficult country in ten hours. When Cornwallis deployed he placed the two Guard battalions on the right of the first line, next to them the two battalions of Grenadiers, then the two of Light Infantry, and the two battalions of Hessian Chasseurs on the left. The fourth Brigade was in support. and the third Brigade with the two squadrons of Dragoons in reserve.

Washington's information regarding Cornwallis's turning movement was imperfect and misleading; finally, when the British were seen on Osborne Hill, Sullivan hastened to oppose them, and formed his three Divisions in line across the road just in front of the Birmingham Meeting House. This movement had hardly been completed when Cornwallis's first line attacked with impetuosity. There was severe fighting about the Meeting House, but two brigades on the American right giving way, Sullivan's own Division soon followed; Stirling's Division, which was in the centre, stood longer and resisted stubbornly. The enemy were followed through the woods for over a mile, when they rallied and took up a second position about three-quarters of a mile west of Dilworth, but were dislodged by the second Light Infantry and Hessian Chasseurs. The second Light Infantry, with the second Grenadiers and fourth Brigade, then moved forward about half a mile beyond the village of Dilworth, where they met a fresh body of the enemy. This was Greene's Division, which Washington had sent to support Sullivan when he heard of the latter being attacked in such force. Greene took up a strong position in rear of Sullivan's retreating troops behind Dilworth, on each side of a defile through which the road to Chester passes, and then bordered with thick woods. He had hardly posted his Division before he was attacked, and for an hour the fighting was very warm; here Greene held his ground until darkness set in, and covered the retreat of the remainder of the army towards Chester.

When Knyphausen heard Cornwallis's guns to the northward, and saw bodies of the enemy moving in that direction, he commenced to cross the ford. His men soon entered the entrenchments on the opposite side, and captured the guns, with many of the defenders. Wayne's Brigades were driven back through woods and enclosures until they were taken in flank, and scattered by the Guards and first Grenadiers, which had lost their way in the woods when Cornwallis was advancing, and now unexpectedly fell on Wayne's men. There was no pursuit, the British being much fatigued, and the retreating Americans made their way unmolested to Chester. The British casualties amounted to 90 killed, and 480 wounded. The 64th had Captain Nairne and four men killed; Major McLeroth, Lieutenants Jacob, Torriano, and Wynward, Ensigns Freeman and Grant, five sergeants, and 31 men wounded. The second Light Infantry had 58 casualties, and the second Grenadiers 82. Lieutenant Peters, of the Grenadier Company 64th Regiment, was wounded, but the losses amongst the non-commissioned officers and men of the flank companies, serving with the above-named flank battalions, are not shown separately. The Americans estimated their loss at 300 killed and 600 wounded; they also lost a good many prisoners and 11 guns.

The day after the battle Washington retreated to Germantown, but re-crossing the Schuylkill at Sweed's Ford, he advanced along the old Lancaster road and met Howe on the 16th September near Westchester. The armies were about to engage when a violent storm came on, and wet the ammunition on both sides, so no battle took place. Washington then retired to Potsgrove, on the east side of the river, but left Wayne's Division, 1,500 strong, behind, for the purpose of attacking the rear of the British troops should they attempt to cross the Schuylkill. On the 20th September Wayne encamped round the Paoli Tavern, believing that Howe was ignorant of his position, but the Tories had informed the British General of the fact, and he soon took advantage of it. Major-General Grey, whom the Americans called the "No Flint General" on account of his predeliction for the bayonet, was ordered to make a night attack on the isolated division. Consequently on the night of the 20th, which was dark and wet, Grey started at ten o'clock, with the 42nd, 44th, and second Light Infantry, followed by the 40th and 55th Regiments under Lieut.-Colonel Musgrave. The muskets were unloaded, or had the flints knocked out.

The enemy's pickets were surprised, and the second Light Infantry, which was in front, came in on the right of the camp it seems, and rushing along the line bayonetted all they met with; the 44th Regiment followed in support, and the 42nd in a third line. It was an utter rout; 300 of the Americans were killed or wounded, and about 30 were taken prisoners; the British had four killed and four wounded. It appears that the surprise took place about one o'clock, when the enemy were assembling for some object. One account says Wayne ordered his men to sleep on their arms, as an attack was not unexpected. On the evening of the 22nd September, the British Army set out for the Schuylkill River, which they crossed during the night at Fatland Ford. The two battalions of Light Infantry were despatched to Sweed's Ford, where a small party of the enemy were stationed; however, they retired before being attacked, leaving six guns behind. On the 25th the Army marched in two columns to Germantown, and next day Lord Cornwallis with 3,000 men took possession of Philadelphia. The village of Germantown then consisted of a straggling street running in a north-westerly direction for nearly two miles, as far as Mount Airey, where the pickets of the second Light Infantry were posted. About half-way down the village on its eastern side, the 40th Regiment, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel T. Musgrave (late of the 64th ), was stationed in the grounds about Chief Justice Chew's house, which was a substantial building. [This distinguished officer entered the service in 1754; he joined the 64th Regiment as a Captain in 1759, and was promoted into the 40th Regiment as Lieut.-Colonel on the 2lst August. 1776. He became Colonel of the 76th Regiment, Governor of Gravesend and Tilbury Fort, and died a General in 1812.] General Howe encamped the main body of the army behind or south of School House Lane, which intersects the road leading through Germantown near the southern end of the village, at the market square. The left wing, commanded by Lieut.-General Knyphausen, was stationed behind the lane, between the Schuylkill River and the Germantown road. This wing was comprised of the third Brigade, under Major-General Grey, which was encamped on the right; the fourth Brigade, under Brigadier Agnew, was on their left; three battalions of Hessians were stationed in the vicinity of the Germantown road, and the Hessian Chasseurs on the left near the Schuylkill. Evidently there had been some changes in the brigading of regiments since the battle of Brandywine, but it seems the fourth Brigade still consisted of the 33rd, 37th, 46th, and 64th Regiments; and the third Brigade, of the 15th, 17th, and 44th Regiments, being minus one battalion (42nd Regiment). On the right of the Germantown road Major-General Grant commanded, and here were encamped the Guards, the 4th, 5th, 27th, 28th, 49th, and 55th Regiments. The first Light Infantry furnished the advanced troops for this wing, and the Queen's Rangers protected the right flank; the whole line extended for a distance of about two and a half miles. According to the official return for October, the Army under Sir W. Howe numbered 16,000 men fit for duty, but only 9,000 were present at Germantown. There were 3,000 in Philadelphia, and a strong detachment in the Jerseys; the 10th, 23rd, and 42nd Regiments were escorting provision columns at the time the battle took place. Washington having been reinforced by some 2,500 men, and hearing that a great part of Sir W. Howe's Army was detached, resolved to surprise the British at Germantown, his plan being somewhat similar to that which proved so successful at Trenton. He had now 8,000 Continental troops and 3,000 Militia at his disposal; accordingly on the 3rd October he put his forces in motion, and set out for Germantown, some eighteen miles distant. A halt was made five miles east of Skippack Creek, and at seven o'clock in the evening the night march commenced. Sullivan, with his own and Wayne's Divisions marched on the main road, his objective being the British left, while Greene, with his own and Stephen's Divisions, was to make a detour and come in on their right by the Lime-kiln road. The Pennsylvania Militia were to demonstrate against the left rear, and the Maryland and Jersey Militia were to act in a similar manner on the other flank of the Royal Army. Sullivan arrived first on the ground, and Conway's Brigade, passing over Chestnut Hill through a thick mist about dawn, came on the pickets of the second Light Infantry. The latter fell back on the battalion, and the whole retired, contesting every inch of ground, to where the 40th Regiment was drawn up in the orchard of Chief Justice Chew's house. Here the fighting was obstinately maintained in the fog for some time; but the British were outnumbered and obliged to retire; before doing so however, Lieut.-Colonel Musgrave was able to garrison the house with six weak companies of the 40th Regiment, amounting to only 140 men. The building was now attacked on all sides, and soon 3,000 Americans were swarming round it in tumult and confusion. Three guns were brought to bear on the mansion, but no impression could be made on it, or on Musgrave's musketeers. Sullivan presently managed to push forward, with his own Division on the right of the road, and Wayne's on the left. Nash's Brigade was brought up to cover the right flank, while the reserve under Maxwell continued the attack on the house. The British were forced slowly back towards the Market Place, but Major-General Grey with the third Brigade, supported on the left by the fourth Brigade, presently came forward, and forming the three battalions of his own Brigade to the right took Sullivan in flank when engaged amidst the houses and enclosures, thus arresting his further progress. Meanwhile General Greene, who arrived late on the field, came from the direction of the Lime-kiln road, and drove back the pickets and other troops which he encountered, but Stephen's Division, losing its way in the fog, got behind Wayne, and fired into his men, mistaking them for the enemy. This fortuitous occurrence caused confusion, and led to the retreat of both Divisions from the field, Sullivan's left was now uncovered, and Greene, who had advanced far into the British position, was isolated and unprotected on his right by Stephen's retirement. General Grant, who soon grasped the situation, reformed his troops, and prepared to act vigorously. He brought up the 49th Regiment, and four field guns on the left of the 4th Regiment, which had been sent to the right front to support the pickets, and these troops it seems attacked Greene on his outer flank. The 5th and 55th Regiments from the right centre fell on Sullivan's left flank in the village when he was engaged with Grey on the other side, and the remainder of the right wing formed up to oppose Greene. However at this juncture (about ten o'clock) a panic took place amongst the Americans, caused either by the firing in their rear at Chew's house, or by a rumour that they were being surrounded, and soon all the troops that had been engaged were retreating from the field. But one of Greene's regiments, the ninth Continentals, known as "the Tall Virginians", being unable to extricate themselves in time from an entangled position, were surrounded and taken after a desperate resistance. With the exception of a shots fired by the Pennsylvanians, near the Schuylkill River, the Militia took no part in the action, and Washington, after fruitless efforts to rally the troops, made dispositions to cover the retreat.

On hearing the sound of the firing at Germantown, Cornwallis, who commanded in Philadelphia - which was over five miles distant from the scene of action - started at once with two battalions of British and one of Hessian Grenadiers. They ran a good part of the way, and arrived before the engagement was quite over. When the enemy retreated, Cornwallis followed them with the Dragoons and Grenadiers to Whitemarsh, where Washington skilfully posted his rear guard, and Wayne's guns came into action. Here Howe discontinued his languid pursuit early in the day, although the British were comparatively fresh: they had sustained small loss, and several of the regiments took little or no part in the battle. "The period which intervened between ten in the morning and dusk on the 4th of October, 1777, was for Sir William Howe a lost - and as fate willed it a last - opportunity." [Trevelyan] So the Americans, with empty cartridge boxes, and suffering from exhaustion, having marched nearly twenty miles before the action, got clear away with all their guns.

In an account of the action in "Gaine's Mercury" of November 10th, 1777 (a Loyalist journal), it states that a column of the enemy which had filed off towards our left - apparently Nash's Brigade - was driven off by the 33rd, 46th, and 64th Regiments; in fact the fourth Brigade. The commanders of these Brigades, Brigadiers Agnew and Nash, were both mortally wounded. It also states that "The Commander-in-Chief having perceived a large body that had rallied, forming itself on Chestnut Hill, apparently to retard the pursuit, his Excellency ordered Major-General Grey to advance upon it with the l7th, 33rd, 14th, 46th, and 64th Regiments, directing other corps to follow as fast as possible to sustain," but the Americans retreated on their approach. The journal declares that the American columns which attacked the British right were defeated by the 1st Light Infantry, the 4th, 5th, 15th, 37th, 49th, and 55th Regiments, and that the rest of the Army had not the opportunity of engaging. This statement seems to indicate that the two battalions of the left wing, viz., the 15th Regiment of the third Brigade, and the 37th Regiment of the fourth Brigade, were sent to assist the right wing, but the whole action was confused and hard to unravel.

The British casualties amounted to 70 killed and 425 wounded, the latter including 24 Hessians. The 64th had one rank and file killed and six wounded. What casualties the Light Company sustained are not shown separately; the second Light Infantry battalion, of which they formed part, lost 68 killed and wounded, besides five missing. Brigadier Agnew died a few days after the action from his wounds. Ensign Grant, of the 64th, died on the day of the battle, probably from wounds received at Brandywine. The Americans stated their loss at 152 killed and 521 wounded, besides 100 taken prisoners.

The opening of the Delaware in order to receive sea-borne supplies, now became an urgent necessity, as Washington's patrols and the New Jersey partisans rendered the collecting of foodstuffs from the surrounding countryside well-nigh impossible. The defences on the river constructed by the Americans consisted of an enclosed work called Fort Mifflin, situated on a low island, near the Pennsylvania side, a short way below the mouth of the Schuylkill River. Another work, called Fort Mercer, stood opposite at Red Bank, on the Jersey shore, and about three miles lower down, on the same side of the river, a redoubt had been constructed at Billingsport; the channel was also obstructed by chevaux-de-frise. The Americans had besides a fine frigate on the river, and a flotilla of schooners, galleys, and various sorts of vessels to aid in the defence.

In the meantime Admiral Lord Howe, in spite of the difficult navigation, brought the fleet round from the Chesapeake to the Delaware, and on the 4th October his leading vessels anchored off the town of Chester, fifteen miles below Philadelphia. On the 6th a body of infantry took possession of Billingsport, and it was decided that Fort Mercer should be next reduced. This task was entrusted to Count Von Donop and 2,000 Hessians; these were ferried across the river from Philadelphia on the 2lst October, and next day the assault took place. The Hessians carried the outer breastworks, but when they advanced against the fort, they were met by a deadly fire, and being enfiladed by the enemy's galleys, the attack, although gallantly made, was repulsed. Three Colonels and 20 officers fell, including Count Von Donop; 127 men were killed, and many wounded. On the 3rd November the capitulation of General Burgoyne at Saratoga on the 16th October was announced, which news had a depressing effect on the troops. It was the sound of their cannon Burgoyne had so anxiously listened for on the Hudson previous to the surrender, as he had stipulated for and depended upon Howe's co-operation before he undertook the expedition.

Fort Mifflin was attacked on the l0th November, when a heavy fire was brought to bear on the defences; this was followed by a combined land and sea attack on the 15th, which reduced the place to ruins, the survivors of the garrison making their escape during the night to Fort Mercer. Howe now sent Cornwallis against this fort with ten regiments - about 5,500 men. They crossed the Delaware at Chester, and moved up the east bank to invest the place, but the garrison, deeming it impossible to hold out against such a force, evacuated the defences on the 20th November. Next morning the American flotilla was set on fire by its crews, and Cornwallis, after dismantling the fort, returned to his camp. Howe's communications by sea were now open, and supplies came in without interruption. In order to protect Philadelphia on the land side, a line of works was constructed just north of the city, which extended from the Schuylkill River to the Delaware, a distance of two and a half miles, and behind which the Royal troops encamped.

In the end of October Washington advanced to near Whitemarsh, about four miles from Chestnut Hill, and there established himself in strong lines. Howe moved out on the 4th December with about 1,000 men to Chestnut Hill, intending to attack, and next day Lieut.-Colonel Abercrombie, with the 2nd Battalion and part of the 1st Battalion Light Infantry, was sent forward to feel the American right. A warm skirmish took place with the Pennsylvania Militia, who were defeated, and their commander, General Irvine, wounded and taken prisoner. On the 7th the British left Chestnut Hill and took up a position on Edge Hill towards the American left, and another smart affair took place between the 1st Light Infantry and 33rd Regiment, under Cornwallis, and Colonel Morgan with his riflemen and the Maryland Militia, the enemy sustaining a loss of 11 men. Major-General Grey, with the Queen's Rangers, the Hessian Chasseurs, and a brigade of regular troops made some impression on the American left, which lost 50 men. The British casualties in these engagements amounted to 20 killed, 63 wounded, and 33 missing. Howe, finding Washington too strongly posted to attack with any chance of success, returned to Philadelphia on the 8th December, and went into winter quarters. Soon afterwards Washington retired to Valley Forge on the Schuylkill River, some 21 miles from Philadelphia, where he had selected ground on which to form an entrenched camp; his outposts being about 16 miles distant from those of the British on Chestnut Hill. The works at Valley Forge were at once taken in hand, and were soon capable of resisting assault, but the sufferings of the troops during the winter were terrible, from want of food, clothing, and necessaries. Most of the men were ill, the mortality was great, and desertions numerous. Although the Americans were in such plight, Howe with his well-appointed Army, double their strength, never made a move against them. There were many enterprising officers within the British lines, wishing only to be led against the enemy, but Howe let the time slip by, and in the meantime the opportunity was gone; he remained inactive for nearly six months, and soon allowed himself to be practically blockaded in Philadelphia.

An alliance between France and America had been discussed for some time, and on receipt of the news telling of Burgoyne's surrender, the French Government finally resolved to conclude a treaty by which each country bound itself not to make peace until Great Britain acknowledged the independence of the United States. The treaty was signed on the 6th February, 1778, and soon after a French squadron of twelve ships of the line and five frigates, with 4,000 troops on board, under Count d'Estaing, was on its way across the Atlantic. Meanwhile the season at Philadelphia was very gay, balls were held weekly, a racecourse was established within the lines, also a gaming table; then there was "the cockpit in Moore's Alley, the wild suppers at the 'Bunch of Grapes,' and the club dinners, late and long, in the rooms of the Indian Queen." Before the end of 1777 Sir William Howe had asked to be relieved of his command, and in February. 1778. Lord George Germaine informed him that his resignation had been accepted, and that Sir Henry Clinton would succeed him. The Army had become much attached to Sir William, who was an indulgent commander, with easy ways, and of a genial disposition, and their regret at his forthcoming departure was so genuine that they decided to give him a farewell entertainment, such as had never been seen in the New World. Twenty-two field officers of means formed themselves into a committee, and with the aid of several officers who were artistically inclined, including Captain Andre - whose after fate was so tragic - arranged a romantic festival called the "Meschianza," an Italian word meaning a "medley". This wonderful display came off on the 18th May at four o'clock in the afternoon. First there was a grand procession of boats on the Delaware, formed in three divisions, a galley and ten flat boats in each, containing a brilliant company. In the centre was the Hussar galley, having on board Admiral Lord Howe and Sir William Howe, Sir Henry Clinton, and the ladies of the party.

Three boats, with bands of music in each, led the procession, which passed along a line of vessels dressed in bunting. The whole company then landed at the old fort, when salutes were fired: they then passed between files of Grenadiers to an enclosure 150 yards square, lined by the King's troops, where a tournament took place. Here an English and American Queen of Beauty sat on opposite sides of the ground, each attended by six damsels dressed in the Turkish fashion. Six knights, with their esquires, then appeared, dressed in crimson and white silk, on grey steeds, who asserted that the ladies of the "Blended Rose" excelled all others in wit and beauty. These knights were challenged by six others of the "Burning Mountain," arrayed in black and orange, and mounted on coal-black horses, who upheld the claims of the ladies of their choice. Lances were shivered and pistols fired, until the Marshal proclaimed that the ladies were satisfied with the devotion and valour of their respective champions. After this exhibition the whole company passed through two triumphal arches, one erected in honour of Lord Howe, the other in honour of Sir William Howe. Between these arches an avenue 300 yards long was formed, in which all the Colours of the Army were placed, and lined with the King's troops. A brilliantly decorated ballroom was then entered, containing eighty or ninety large mirrors which reflected walls of blue and gold, where refreshments were served. Dancing followed until 10:30 o'clock, when a wonderful display of fireworks was witnessed from the windows; fountains spouting fire, illuminations, and transparencies, &c. At twelve midnight a supper of 1,021 dishes was served in a magnificent apartment built for the occasion, and lit by 1,200 wax candles, the attendants being negroes attired in Oriental dress, with silver collars and bracelets. After supper the guests returned to the ballroom until four o'clock, when the entertainment, which had lasted just twelve hours, ended.

Lieutenant Wynyard, of the 64th Regiment, was one of the Knights of the "Burning Mountain," and Lieutenant Boscawen, of the Guards, was his esquire; the device on his shield was a bay leaf, and his motto the word "Unchanged." This romantic entertainment caused much talk at the time, and did not escape severe satire, both in private circles and from the Press.

On the very day of the "Mischianza", Washington sent the young Marquis de Lafayette, with 2,100 men and five guns, to Baron Hill, within two miles of the British outposts on Chestnut Hill, to act as a corps of observation. When this became known, General Howe formed a plan to capture this detachment, and very nearly succeeded. Three columns, commanded respectively by Generals Clinton, Grey, and Grant, moved out on the night of the 19th May to encircle the Marquis, but the latter, on becoming aware of his situation in the morning, by great adroitness extricated his force just in time from its almost hopeless situation. On the 24th May Sir William Howe embarked for England, and Sir Henry Clinton assumed command. Previous to this orders had been received for the Army to evacuate Philadelphia, and retire to New York. Indeed Philadelphia had been of little use to the British except as a winter quarter, and the place was so closely watched by Washington's patrols and partisans that it was necessary to send strong detachments into the country to protect such as were willing to bring in provisions. In the meantime great changes had taken place in the American Army at Valley Forge; Washington, by extraordinary exertions, had obtained supplies and clothing for his starving and half-naked Army, which was thoroughly reorganized. He had obtained the services of Baron Steuben, a very competent officer, who had served on the staff of Frederick the Great of Prussia, and to him he entrusted the drilling and discipline of the troops, which were taught to manoeuvre with exactness. April and May soon refilled the ranks, and by June Washington had 16,000 men or more ready to take the field. Sir Henry Clinton, as soon as he had taken over command, commenced loading his heavy baggage on board the transports; his sick and wounded were put on board the fleet, while other vessels were crowded with numbers of unfortunate Loyalists who could not be left behind. On the 18th June Lord Howe, with the fleet and his great convoy destined for New York, weighed anchor, and dropped down the river. Brigadier-General Leslie, with the fifth Brigade, consisting of the 7th, 26th, and 63rd Regiments, which had been sent from New York to the Delaware before the end of 1777, had been stationed on the Jersey side of the river; the 55th, 33rd and 16th Regiments were sent over in June to Cope's Ferry Camp, and these corps, under Leslie, formed a guard for the stores, and a portion of the artillery collected at the latter place.

At six o'clock on the evening of the 17th June, the remainder of the troops were put under-arms, and marched to the rear of the several redoubts, where they remained all night. A little after daybreak on the 18th they were ferried across the Delaware, all being over by nine o'clock; and the whole Army, numbering nearly 17,000 men and 46 guns, with a great train of wagons, commenced their march for Haddonfield, five miles distant, which was the first stage on their journey to New York. Throughout the march the fourth Brigade formed part of the First Division, under Lord Cornwallis, which brought up the rear of the Army; the Second Division formed the escort of the immense train under Lieut.-General Knyphausen. At the next halting point (Evesham) it rained in torrents for fourteen hours, soaking the baggage and spoiling the ammunition and supplies. This downpour was succeeded by a long spell of terribly hot weather, such as the oldest inhabitant never remembered. Many of the foot soldiers, burthened with their heavy accoutrements, and wearing their thick woolen clothing. died of sunstroke, and it is stated that every third Hessian was left by the wayside. The American partisans presently broke down the bridges and blocked the roads, while the country people abandoned their homes, cut the ropes of the wells, and those able to bear arms commenced a guerilla warfare on the British as they pursued their toilsome march.

Early on Saturday, the 20th June, the Army advanced to Hollymount, where they encamped until Monday, and marched on that day to the Black Horse Tavern. At five o'clock on the morning of the 23rd, Brigadier-General Leslie, with the Yagers and the fifth Brigade, took the Bordenstown road, and Clinton, with the Grenadiers and Light Infantry, followed by three brigades, advanced to Crosswicks. When Leslie approached Bordenstown he was informed that the place was occupied by Dickenson's Militia, who had destroyed the bridge over the Creek, which prevented his crossing. Clinton also met with obstructions, but the enemy, who had removed the planks from the bridge at Crosswicks, retired after a skirmish, and the structure was soon repaired. On the 24th Leslie rejoined the main body, and the Army advanced to Allenstown. Clinton's intention was to reach New York by the route through Allenstown, New Brunswick, and Perth Amboy. The first part of the march was protected on the west by the broad waters of the Delaware, but with his immense train, which on a single road covered nearly twelve miles, he only reached Allenstown, some 40 miles from Philadelphia, on the 24th June. Washington, who had heard of Clinton's departure from Philadelphia a few hours after he left, started the same afternoon with six brigades on a wide flanking march in order to intercept him. He crossed the Delaware at Coryell's Ferry, 15 miles above Trenton, on the 22nd June, and advanced to the neighbourhood of Princeton, while General Gates was instructed to take post behind the Rariton River, near New Brunswick, in order to oppose any advance of the British in that direction. At Allenstown, Clinton received intelligence that Washington had crossed the Delaware and was coming down on the flank of his long column from the direction of Princeton. Finding the road to New Brunswick thus barred, he turned to the right at Allenstown, in order to gain Sandy Hook, and there embark on board the fleet.

On the 25th the Army marched at an early hour, the train being in front with its strong escort under Lieut.-General Knyphausen. By this time Maxwell's Brigade had been sent on by Washington to assist the New Jersey Militia in blocking the road in front of the British, while Morgan, with 600 riflemen, swarmed on their right flank, and Dickenson, with 700 or 800 on their left. The rear Division of the Royal Army halted at the "Rising Sun" seven miles from Allenstown, but Knyphausen, in spite of the intense heat and deep sandy roads, pushed on with the train to within four miles of Monmouth or Freehold. On the 26th he marched into the latter place, and the First Division arrived soon after. The whole Army rested on the 27th round Monmouth Court House, the flanks being protected by pine woods, and the front by streams and morasses. Soon after midnight Knypausen was sent on towards Middleton with the train, which presently covered the whole 11 miles of road between the latter place and Monmouth. His escort (the Second Division) consisted of the 17th Light Dragoons, 2nd Battalion Light Infantry, first and second British Brigades, two Hessian Brigades, and some provincials. Cornwallis followed at eight o'clock with the First Division or rearguard, and was well on his way, - the heat even at that hour being intense - when the enemy's columns were seen following in pursuit. Meanwhile, on the 27th, Washington was between Cranbury and Englishtown, and his advanced troops, consisting of 5,000 men and 12 guns, under Major-General Lee, on the same date were at Englishtown, six miles west of Monmouth. Washington wished to bring on an action while the British were in the plain and before they could reach the strong ground about Middleton; he accordingly gave Lee orders to attack their rearguard on the morning of the 28th, if they continued their retirement, in which case he would march at daybreak and come to his support.

Lee moved forward in the morning. and about ten o'clock arrived at a point about three-quarters of a mile north of Monmouth Court House, from which position his forces commenced to descend into the plain. Clinton, seeing the enemy coming down on him with strong bodies of troops on each flank, as if they intended to envelope the column, considered that the best way of protecting the convoy was to attack before Washington's main body could arrive on the scene of action. He therefore gave Cornwallis orders to countermarch his Division and deploy, which the latter soon complied with. The troops advanced in the following order :- On the left the two battalions of English Grenadiers, the Guards in the centre, and the first Light Infantry on the right. Two brigades of infantry followed as a second line; the third Brigade, consisting of the 15th, 17th, 42nd, and 44th Regiments, under Major-General Grey, was on the right; the fourth Brigade, composed of the 33rd, 37th, 46th, and 64th Regiments, on the left, the latter supporting the Grenadiers. The fifth Brigade, commanded by Brigadier-General Leslie, and the Hessian Grenadiers, were in rear; the Queen's Rangers moved on the right flank, and the 16th Light Dragoons on the left. The artillery opened fire, and the Guards and Grenadiers advanced, but the Americans did not stand long, as it seems General Lee, after giving some inconsistent orders, retired over a morass (East Ravine) and commenced a retreat which soon resembled a rout. About two miles west of Monmouth Court House - between the West and Middle Ravines - the retreating troops were met by Washington, who halted, and formed them across the road leading from Monmouth to Englishtown, under General Wayne. The pursuing first line of the British crossed the Middle Ravine, and soon the fighting became warm.

Wayne had posted some of his troops behind an orchard fence and in some loop-holed farm buildings, just south of the road, and about 400 yards north-west of the Parsonage, and this position was attacked by the Grenadiers, under Lieut.-Colonel Monckton. The latter crossed the fence, and were twice repulsed. Then the Colonel harangued the 2nd Grenadiers - which included those of the 64th Regiment - and placing himself at their head led them to a final assault. But they were met by a deadly fire from the loopholed buildings, and at the same time being enfiladed by a battery on their left, the attack failed, and Lieut.-Colonel Monckton with many of his men fell. [It is stated that the Grenadiers advanced to the attack 'with so much precision that a cannon ball, which took the muskets of a platoon in flank, disarmed every man'.] Washington's main body had by this time arrived, and he extended it in some strong ground, on each side of the road, with a marshy hollow in front (West Ravine); this position was about half a mile in rear of that occupied by Wayne. The troops under the latter commander were subsequently forced back, or retired on their main body behind the West Ravine, and the British Artillery took up a position on the ground they abandoned. About this time the third Brigade, from the second line, moved forward towards the enemy's left, and the first Light Infantry and Queen's Rangers had pushed so far forward on the right that they actually turned it.

The fighting had lasted continuously from one to half-past five o'clock, and the heat was so excessive that nearly half the number of deaths on the British side were caused by sunstroke. [Lord Carlisle was told that several of Clinton's men "ran mad" from the heat. A number of unwounded soldiers were found dead under the Alder bushes along a rivulet, where they had crawled for shade and water.] The Americans also lost many from the same cause, but their clothing, it seems, was lighter, and many had dispensed with the greater part of it. Clinton was now out-numbered, his men were exhausted, and had fired away the greater part of their ammunition; however he had gained his object - the safety of the convoy - so he withdrew his troops over a mile to a strong defensive position behind the "Middle Ravine," with a stream on each flank. When the British moved back, the first Light Infantry and Queen's Rangers - whose impetuosity had carried them so far forward on the right - were ordered to rejoin the main body, but some of the Americans had repassed the "West Ravine" and occupied ground which would have interfered with their retirement. It therefore became necessary to drive the enemy from the position they had taken up, and this was accomplished by the 1st Guards and the 33rd Regiment, which latter had been brought up from the right of the fourth Brigade; these troops held the ground as a rearguard until the light corps had been safely withdrawn. The weary men bivouacked on the ground to which they had retired, but their rest was short, as the retreat to Middleton had to be carried out without delay, so the first regiment moved quietly away at ten o'clock, and by twelve midnight all had left except some of the more severely wounded. Washington knew nothing of the silent retirement of the British; he had intended to renew the action in the morning, but finding Clinton had got such a start, he despaired of overtaking him, before he had reached the strong ground about Middleton, so he gave up the idea of pursuing, and retired to the Hudson.

Clinton halted on the 29th and 30th about Middleton, and on the 1st July arrived without the loss of a wagon at Novesink, a highland near Sandy Hook. The fleet had already arrived at the latter place, and here the Army, with its great following, embarked on July 5th, and sailed for New York.

The British losses at Monmouth were as follows:- 1 Lieut.-Colonel, 1 Captain, 2 Lieutenants, 4 Sergeants, and 55 rank and file killed; 3 Sergeants and 58 rank and file died of heat and fatigue; 1 Colonel, 1 Lieut.-Colonel, 1 Major. 7 Captains, 5 Lieutenants, 7 Sergeants, l48 rank and file wounded; 3 Sergeants and 61 rank and file missing; but Washington stated that his men buried 249 of the British on the field.

The muster rolls of the Grenadier Company of the 64th show three men killed on the 28th June, the number of wounded is not given. The 2nd Grenadier Battalion sustained the following casualties:- 1 Lieut.-Colonel, 1 Lieutenant, 2 Sergeants, and 18 rank and file killed; 9 rank and file dead from fatigue; 1 Major, 2 Captains, 5 Lieutenants, 2 Sergeants, and 46 rank and file wounded, and 10 rank and file missing. The battalion companies of the 64th lost four men from heat and fatigue, and one missing. The 33rd Regiment, which was the only battalion of the fourth Brigade actively engaged, had two rank and file killed, two wounded, and four missing. In the 37th Regiment two rank and file died of fatigue, and one was missing. The 16th Regiment had no casualties. The third Brigade had several killed and wounded. The fifth Brigade had only one man wounded, but these brigades lost men from fatigue and had some missing. More than half the losses at Monmouth were sustained by the 1st Battalion of the Guards, and the two Grenadier Battalions. Washington reported his loss at 58 killed, 161 wounded, and 131 missing. The desertions during the retreat were numerous; within a fortnight after leaving Philadelphia 600 men of the British Army were back in the place, over two-thirds of this number being Hessians. The 64th lost few prisoners, if any, during the retreat, only twelve fell into the hands of the Americans during the year.

After their return north the battalion companies of the 64th Regiment were quartered at Bedford, Long Island, where their muster rolls for the half-year ending the 24th June, 1778, were signed on the 28th July. The Grenadiers were also stationed on Long Island, and the Light Company at Cripples Bush Camp. The muster rolls of the latter companies were signed at the above places on the 7th August. In these rolls Lieut.-Colonel the Hon. Alexander Leslie (Brigadier-General in the Army - and appointed Major-General on 19th February, 1779) is shown as doing duty with the fifth Brigade, and Captain Lewis as an acting Brigade Major.

Lord Howe had hardly seen Clinton's Army safely landed in New York when he had to hasten back to the fleet, which was anchored behind the Bar off Sandy Hook. Count d'Estaing had arrived outside on the 11th July with a superior number of ships, carrying 1,000 soldiers, but after lingering eleven days south of the Bar, without attempting to cross it, in order to engage the British fleet, he sailed for Newport on Rhode Island. It had been arranged to make a combined land and sea attack on the British garrison in the latter place, which numbered barely 1,000 men, under Sir Robert Pigot. The American General Sullivan had collected some 10,000 men, mostly Militia, with which he crossed over to the island on which Newport stood, and made preparations to besiege the place. D'Estaing got his ships into the bay behind Newport on August 8th, and landed his 1,000 soldiers to aid in the siege. Sir Robert Pigot was now in a very critical position, but fortunately Lord Howe, who had followed the French fleet, appeared with his ships off the harbour, on the 9th August, and d'Estaing, having re-embarked his troops, put out to meet him next day. However, a storm came on which dispersed both fleets, and Howe was obliged to return to New York to refit, while the French Admiral only looked in at Newport to inform the Americans that it was necessary for him to sail to Boston, in order to have his ships repaired, and refused to land his troops, although urged to do so.

General Sullivan, who had commenced the siege on the 15th August, was very indignant at d'Estaing's conduct, and on hearing of the departure of the French fleet, most of the American Militia returned home. Sullivan was therefore obliged to raise the siege, but retired to a strong position in the north end of the island, where he was followed by Pigot, and a sharp action took place on August 29th. Next morning the American Commander, hearing that the British fleet was again approaching, recrossed to the mainland in order to avoid a surrender. Lord Howe had sailed for Newport as soon as his ships were ready for sea; he had General Clinton and 5,000 troops on board, including the 33rd, 42nd, 16th, and 64th Regiments, under Major-General Grey; the latter corps embarking at the east end of Long Island. The fleet dropped anchor in Newport harbour on August 3lst, a few hours after Sullivan had escaped to the mainland.

The British commander, having been disappointed in not cutting off the Americans, decided to send an expedition to destroy the privateers in the Acushnet River - some 25 miles east of Newport, in Plymouth County - together with a number of prizes which they had lately taken. The command of the expedition devolved on Sir Charles Grey; it consisted of the 1st Batt. Light Infantry, 1st Batt. Grenadiers, the 33rd, 42nd, 16th, and 64th Regiments, and the service was most effectually performed. The troops were landed on the banks of the Acushnet River on the evening of the 5th September, and so rapidly did they carry out the work of destruction that by noon the next day they were all re-embarked, having in the meantime burnt more than 70 sail, and a number of buildings at New Bedford filled with provisions and stores of all kinds. They also destroyed a fort on the east side of the river, mounting 11 pieces of heavy cannon, blew up the magazine, and burnt the barracks. The loss sustained was only one man killed, four wounded, and 16 missing; the 64th had one man wounded.

The fleet next proceeded to the island called Martha's Vineyard, which lay some 20 miles to the southward, where the British burnt several vessels, and made the inhabitants furnish a contribution of 10,000 sheep and 300 oxen, and with these seasonable provisions the expedition returned to New York. The British commander in the latter city, having received information that 700 Militia were cantoned in the neighbourhood of Hackensack, decided to surprise them. A body of troops accordingly was drawn from New York and Long Island, and landed at Paulus Hook, in New Jersey, on the 23rd or 24th September. This force, consisting of the 2nd Light Infantry, 2nd Grenadiers, 33rd and 64th Regiments, under Major-General Grey, marched after 9 pm on the 27th, and between one and two o'clock on the morning of the 28th arrived near the enemy's cantonments. The 2nd Light Infantry was in advance, supported by the 2nd Grenadiers; six companies of the Light Infantry had been detached under Major Straubenzee to make a detour, while six companies under Major Maitland kept the road, and captured the enemy's patrol of a sergeant and 12 men, who evidently were unable to give any alarm.

Major Straubenzee meanwhile moved on, and surprised about 100 Virginian Dragoons in a village; Lieut.-Colonel Baylor, their commanding officer, and the Major were mortally wounded; another officer was killed, besides a number of the men who resisted. Major Maitland's companies came on the scene soon after, and completed the discomfiture of the enemy. The troops lay on their arms until daybreak, when the Grenadiers and Light Infantry had a skirmish with a company of Militia. The latter, having lost several killed and wounded, retreated to Tappan, pursued by the Light Infantry; only one man of the latter corps was killed on this service.

In November the British forces in America were reduced by 5,000 men, as Sir Henry Clinton was ordered to send that number to the West Indies. The military operations in the North were subsequently of little importance; the British occupied New York and Newport, while Washington distributed his troops from Long Island Sound to West Point, and from there to Middlebrook, forming a semi-circle round New York.

The muster rolls of the battalion companies of the 64th regiment for the half-year ending the 24th December, 1778, were signed at Paulus Hook, on the New Jersey shore - just west of New York - on the 2nd February, 1779. The Light Company was stationed at Southampton, Long Island, and the Grenadiers at Jamaica, Long Island, where their muster rolls were signed on the 29th December, 1778. The average strength of the companies was 46.

The War languished in the North until late in the spring, when Sir Henry Clinton, being importance of Stony Point, then being fortified by the Americans, and Verplanck's Point, the places of most direct communication on either side of the Hudson River, he thought it would be the most favourable time to attack, before the enemy had completed their works. Accordingly Major-General Vaughan was sent with a body of troops up the Hudson on the 30th May, 1779, and on the morning of the 31st he landed the larger part of his force eight miles below Verplanck's; while the 17th, 63rd, and 64th Regiments, with 100 Yagers under Lieut.-Colonel Johnson, of the 17th Regiment, proceeded to within three miles of Stony Point, and then landed. On the ships of war coming within sight of the latter place, the Americans fired a large Block House, and as the troops approached made a show of resistance, but did not await a contest. Lieut.-Colonel Johnson, as soon as he was in possession of Stony Point, established a battery and opened fire on Fort Lafayette, situated on Verplanck's Point, on the opposite side of the river, while Major-General Vaughan presently appeared in rear of the place. The enemy in the fort, seeing that they were in a hopeless situation, surrendered, and garrisons having been p!aced in the works, the remainder of the force returned to New York. This enterprise cost our troops only one man wounded.

But the British were not allowed to remain long at Stony Point, for on the night of the 15th July the American General Wayne surprised the garrison, all of which were killed or taken prisoners, to the number of 623. The guns in the captured works were immediately turned against the British in Fort Lafayette, on Verplanck's Point, but Lieut.-Colonel Webster, of the 33rd Regiment, who commanded the garrison, which consisted chiefly of his own regiment, conducted the defence with skill, and successfully defended that post. Washington, finding that Stony Point could not be held by less than 1,500 men, destroyed the works, and evacuated the place on the 18th July. When Sir H. Clinton heard of the capture of Stony Point, he at once ordered a number of transports with troops on board from Long Island Sound - where they were ready to proceed on an expedition against New London - to return to the Hudson, and in the meantime Brigadier Stirling embarked with the 42nd, 63rd, and 64th Regiments for the relief of Verplanck's. Sir H. Clinton followed with the reinforcements, and tried to bring Washington to an engagement, but having failed in this, he left Brigadier Stirling at Stony Point to repair the works; however, the garrison here and at Verplanck's were soon withdrawn, as Sir H. Clinton resolved to make the Southern Colonies the principal scene of operations. Von Kraft says in his journal, already alluded to, under date of 20th September, 1779: "This afternoon the English soldiers, who had been at Fort Stony Point and Verplanck's Point, came back, to wit, the 33rd Regiment of Musketeers, English 64th, 63rd, and 42nd, and some of the 7lst and 81st Regiments....22nd September: This morning Lord Rawdon's Corps of Irish Volunteers marched out of the camp to New York, and the 64th English Musketeer Regiment, which had moved first from Stony Point, then Harlem, and finally into camp at North River Hill [the high ground, by the Hudson, or North River, in the northern part of New York Island; Fort Washington stood on the southern end of the hill.], and now give daily 20 men and one sergeant for work."

According to a contemporary New York paper, a skirmish took place on the morning of the 3rd October, 1779, in which a few of the 64th (probably belonging to one of the flank companies) were engaged. One officer and 30 men of the 64th Regiment, and an officer and 23 men of Captain Demiar's Horse, designated "Hussars", attacked a patrol of Moylan's Dragoons near East Chester, which they put to flight, and captured their commander.

In the end of November, 1778, a small British force had been sent to Georgia, which captured Savannah on the 29th December, and for nearly a year the British, under General Prevost, and the Americans under General Lincoln, opposed each other in those regions. Early in September, 1779, the French Admiral d'Estaing arrived off Tybee Island from the West Indies, and landed 3,500 men in order to cooperate with General Lincoln in an attack on Savannah. An assault on the place was made on October 9th, which was repulsed with severe loss, on which d'Estaing re-embarked his troops and sailed for France. When Sir Henry Clinton heard of the French fleet's arrival off the southern coast, he expected it would come north, so he recalled the 6,000 men at Newport to strengthen the garrison at New York. But when he was informed of d'Estaing's repulse and departure for France, he decided to lead an expedition south, and attack Charleston, which place it was considered would form a good base for operations in the Carolinas, and the reduction of the Southern Colonies. Lord Cornwallis had arrived in America with some reinforcements, and when the Newport garrison returned, Sir H. Clinton had 13,848 British troops, 10,836 Hessians, and 4,072 Provincials under his command in New York and vicinity. These forces being considered sufficient to protect New York, and at the same time provide troops for the southern enterprise, the following corps were selected to form the expeditionary force:- Light Infantry, 800; Grenadiers, 900 (the flank companies of the 64th Regiment were included in the flank battalions); 7th Regiment, 400: 23rd Regiment 400; 33rd Regiment, 450; 42nd Regiment, 700; 63rd Regiment, 100; 64th Regiment, 350; British Legion, 200; Queen's Rangers, 200; Guides and Pioneers, 150; Fanning's Corps, 100; Hessian Grenadiers, 1000; Ferguson's Corps, 300; two Hessian Regiments, 800; Yagers,200; Artillery, 200; total, 7,550. Lieut.-General Knyphausen was left in command in New York with the remainder of the troops. The force was embarked in 90 transports, and put to sea on the 26th December, 1779, their escort consisting of five ships of the line and nine frigates, commanded by Admiral Arbuthnot. The expedition sailed at a bad season of the year; heavy gales were encountered off Cape Hatteras, the ships were dispersed, the stores were damaged, and nearly all the horses perished.

More than thirty days elapsed before the scattered vessels began to arrive at Tybee Island, near Savannah. After some repairs they proceeded to the North Edisto inlet, about thirty miles south of Charleston, where they arrived on the 11th February, 1780, and next day the troops landed on John's Island. Moving slowly through the country, they passed from John's to James's Island, where they encamped for a time, while the advanced troops pushed forward and seized Wappo Creek on the 7th March, and the west bank of the Ashley River, opposite Charleston. So great were the impediments met with, and so extremely cautious was Sir H. Clinton in establishing his communications that much valuable time was lost. The "Pennsylvania Packet" of April 25th mentions a skirmish which took place on the 27th March, when Colonel Washington, with a body of horse, encountered a light party of the British. It says:- "This action happened within 100 yards of the British flying army, consisting of the Light Infantry and Grenadiers, whose marching across the field to get in rear of the Americans obliged Colonel Washington to order a retreat; otherwise the whole party would have been cut to pieces." The passage of the Ashley River was effected on the 29th March, which was conducted with much address by Captain Elphinstone, of the Navy. The troops landed on Charleston Neck, about four miles above the town, and after a skirmish encamped on the 30th in front of the American lines. On the 1st April the first parallel was commenced at a distance of 800 yards from the enemy's works. On account of the slow advance of the British, the Americans had time to strengthen and greatly enlarge their defences, and General Lincoln had collected a garrison of over 5,000 men; a number hardly sufficient to man the extensive works. Clinton's force now amounted to nearly 9,000 men, as 1,200 had joined him from Savannah.

The British ships of war passed Fort Moultrie on the 9th April, and on the l0th the first parallel having been completed, Clinton sent a summons to General Lincoln demanding a surrender; this being refused, the batteries opened on the 12th April, and the siege was carried on with considerable vigour. The Americans had a force of three mounted regiments and a body of Militia, under Brigadier Huger, at Monks Corner which held the passes on the Cooper River, and maintained a communication with Charleston, supplying the garrison with ammunition and provisions. Sir H. Clinton despatched l,400 men against Huger, under Colonel Webster, which included the 33rd and 64th Regiments, and the British Legion under Colonel Tarleton, also Major Ferguson's Corps of Marksmen. This force was at Goose Creek on the 13th April, nearly halfway between Charleston and Monks Corner - the latter place was 30 miles distant from Charleston. Tarleton had been watching Huger, and on the evening of the 13th he moved on with his own corps and Ferguson's towards Monks Corner in order to surprise the Americans by night at the latter place, and also if possible to get possession of Biggin Bridge, on the Cooper River.

The surprise was completely successful; Brigadier Huger narrowly escaped, but 100 of his men were taken, and 100 horses, of which Tarleton was much in need, in order to mount his Legion, and some of his Infantry; 50 wagon loads of necessaries were also captured. Biggin Bridge was next attacked and taken at the point of the bayonet; the loss in this enterprise being only one officer and three men wounded. On hearing of Tarleton's success, Colonel Webster moved up with the 33rd and 64th Regiments to Biggin Bridge, and shortly after took post near the head of Wandoo River, thus preventing any further supplies being thrown into Charleston, which was now completely invested. But as the corps under Colonel Webster had a large space to guard, Sir H. Clinton gave the command on the east side of Cooper River to Lord Rawdon, who had arrived from New York with a reinforcement of 2,500 men. Meanwhile the Siege was pushed on rapidly; on the 8th May the counterscarp was gained, and a canal which ran in front of the works drained, so Clinton again sent in a summons demanding a surrender.

The situation being hopeless, a flag of truce was sent out on the 11th May, when terms of capitulation were arranged, and on the 12th the garrison laid down their arms. The return of prisoners showed a total of seven general officers, 290 other officers, and 5,169 rank and file. The captured ordnance included 391 guns, 5,316 muskets, besides 15 Regimental Colours. During the siege the British casualties amounted to 72 killed and 189 wounded; the Americans lost 92 killed and 146 wounded. The 64th had only one Lieutenant Freeman, of the Light Infantry, and one man wounded. [Lamb, in his history of the war, states that Lieutenant Grattan, of the 64th Regiment. received a severe concussion in the head by the bursting of a shell in one of the trenches at Charleston.] In his dispatches Sir H. Clinton states that he had especially to express his obligation to Lieut.-Colonel Webster and the corps which acted under him. After the capitulation, the 7th, 63rd, and 64th Regiments, under General Patterson, were detailed to form the garrison of Charleston. On the 1st May the strength of the eight battalion companies of the 64th was as follows:- Present, one Major, three Captains, six Lieutenants, four Ensigns, one Adjutant, one Quarter-master, one Surgeon, 15 Sergeants, 10 Drummers, 214 rank and file fit for duty: 71 sick, 91 on command or recruiting, 10 prisoners of war, wanting to complete 32, total 448.

After the siege Sir H. Clinton sent out detachments to hold certain posts in the interior; these included Fort Ninety-Six, Camden, Cheraw, and Georgetown on the coast. Colonel Tarleton, with his Legion, advanced as far as the "Waxhaws" - a place about 40 miles north of Camden - in pursuit of the 3rd Virginia Regiment, 300 strong, under Colonel Burford, which was retreating from the neighbourhood of Charleston, and killed or captured nearly the whole corps. On the 5th June Sir H. Clinton returned to New York with a portion of the troops, including the flank battalions, and Cornwallis was left in command with a force numbering 8,315 men. South Carolina had now to a certain extent returned to the British alliance, but several hard-fought actions took place at different times between the Loyalists and American partisans. The muster rolls of the 64th Regiment were signed at Charleston on the 24th June, 1780, Major McLeroth being in command: the muster rolls of the flank companies were signed at East Chester on the 17th July, after they returned north with Sir H. Clinton. The depot or additional companies at home numbered six officers, 10 non-com. officers, and 36 privates; wanting to complete, 106.

In the beginning af April, Washington had ordered 2,000 Continental troops to proceed to Charleston. General Gates took over command of this force in the end of July; and having been joined by some 1,200 Militia, he advanced against the British post at Camden. On being informed of this move Cornwallis hastened up from Charleston to the latter place with some reinforcements, and on the morning of the 15th August marched out to meet Gates with 2,240 men. The armies met nine miles north of Camden, on the 16th August, and although Gates had over 3,000 men, Cornwallis gained a brilliant victory, the American force being practically destroyed. But this success was counterbalanced by a serious reverse. After the battle Cornwallis advanced to Charlotte, and on his left, about thirty miles distant, Major Ferguson, of the 7lst Regiment, a brave and skillful officer, had been posted in the foothills of the Alleghany Mountains, with a force consisting of 120 of his riflemen and about 800 Loyalists, to keep the local Militia from rising in that part of the country. He had taken up a position on King's Mountain, when he was attacked on the 7th October by a body of back woodsmen, estimated from 1,300 to 1,400 in number.

After some hard fighting, Ferguson and a large proportion of his men were killed, and the rest taken prisoner. The result of this extraordinary engagement - which resembled that of Majuba Hill in many respects - obliged Cornwallis to retire, so he moved back to Winnsboro, which lies about thirty miles west of Camden. After the disaster at King's Mountain, the country was up in arms, and Marion, a famous American partisan, became active. He was called the "Swamp Fox", from the fact of his camp or fastness being situated in the swamps of ihe Lower Pedee River, some 35 miles north-west of Georgetown. In October the 64th Regiment was ordered up from Charleston to Nelson's Ferry, on the Santee River, as Marion commenced making incursions in that direction. In November, Tarleton, who had been in pursuit of Marion in the low country, was sent against Sumpter, another active partisan leader, and an action took place on the 20th November at Blackstocks, both sides claiming the victory. During November Cornwallis made preparations for an invasion of North Carolina, and the 64th Regiment was directed to pass the Santee River and take post on the east side of the line of communications with the more advanced posts. The mounted infantry of the New York Volunteers, under Major Coffin, were at the same time detached by command of Lord Rawdon to assist Major McLeroth, who commanded the 64th Regiment, in guarding the line; many skirmishes took place, but the supplies of the Army were safeguarded. The position taken up by the Regiment, or the headquarters, must have been about Sumpter's House and plantation, which was situated about half-way between Nelson's Ferry and Camden, as their muster rolls were signed there on the 24th December, 1780. In these rolls Captain Bowes is shown as acting Brigade-Major to Major-General Leslie. The muster rolls of the Grenadier Company were signed at Newton Landing, Long Island, on the 11th February, 1781, and those of the Light company at Bedford, Long Island, on the 31st January of the same year. On the 1st November, 1780, the strength of the 64th Regiment was as follows:- Present: 1 Major, 3 Captains, 7 Lieutenants, 2 Ensigns, l Adjutant, 1 Quarter-master, 1 Surgeon, 19 Sergeants, 12 Drummers, 295 rank and file fit for duty: 80 sick, 11 prisoners of war; wanting to complete, 182; establishment 568 (raised from 448).

To protect their convoys the British had established a line of posts between Charleston and the advanced garrisons. The first of these was at Biggin's Bridge, over the Cooper River, near Monk's Corner; the next at Nelson's Ferry: and one at Wright's Bluff (Fort Watson), beside the Santee, about ten miles above Nelson's Ferry; these protected the route to Camden. On the south side of the Santee and Congaree Rivers, there were posts at Thomson's plantation (near Fort Motte), and Friday's Ferry (Fort Granby), near where the town of Columbia now stands: the latter protected the road to Fort Ninety-Six. The supply trains were always attended by strong escorts, as they were liable to capture by the American partisans. An attack on one of these convoys is described by McCrady in his "History of South Carolina during the Revolution. 1780-83".

About the middle of February, 1781, Major McLeroth, of the 64th Regiment, was marching from Nelson's Ferry in charge of a convoy, when he was attacked by Marion's mounted men near Halfway Swamp, about eighteen miles above the Ferry. Marion cut off in succession two pickets in McLeroth's rear, then wheeling round his main body, attacked in flank and front. As McLeroth had no cavalry his position became perilous in the extreme, but by a rapid march and constant skirmishing he gained an enclosed field about a mile and a half from the swamp. The next morning he abandoned his heavy baggage, left his fires burning, and retired silently towards Singleton's Mill, ten miles distant. When Marion discovered Major McLeroth's departure, he detached one hundred men, under Colonel H. Horry, to intercept him before he could reach the Mill.

This officer, finding that he could not overtake the escort, sent a party mounted on the swiftest horses to take possession of Singleton's house, which stood on a high hill commanding a narrow defile on the road between the hill and the Wateree swamp. When the British approached, this party opened fire on them, and killed a captain, but then retired, and Major McLeroth having gained the strong position, Marion discontined the pursuit. Horry, in his Life of Marion, says that the British had eight or nine killed, and that a few on both sides were rather badly wounded. According to the muster rolls, five men died (probably were killed) on the 23rd February: the engagement may have taken place on that date.

The American historian James, in his Life of Marion, says that it was constantly represented by the inhabitants of South Carolina, amongst whom Major McLeroth passed, that he was the most humane of all the officers of the British Army. It was currently reported that he carried his dislike of house burning so far that he neglected to carry into effect the orders on that point.

In February Major McLeroth severed his connection with the 64th Regiment, as he was promoted Lieut.-Colonel into the 57th Regiment. The following appeared in the Royal Gazette of Charleston:- On 26th May, 1781 by orders dated New York, 5th April. Captain William Montgomery, from 37th Regiment, to be Major, vice McLeroth, promoted in the 57th Regiment, 18th February, 1781. The date of the promotion in the London Gazette was the 18th November, 1780. In the muster rolls Major McLeroth is shown as belonging to the 64th Regiment until the 19th April, 1781, the date on which Captain William Brereton was promoted Major into the 64th from the 17th Regiment. Major McLeroth sold out as a Lieut.-Colonel in May, 1782. He was an Argyleshire Highlander.

General Greene succeeded General Gates in the command of the Southern Army on December 4th, 1780, and in the middle of the month he directed Morgan to threaten Fort Ninety-six and Augusta. Cornwallis sent Tarleton to attack Morgan, but he was severely defeated by the latter at Cowpens on the 17th January, 1781. However, after the action Morgan retired as Cornwallis had commenced a forward movement from Winnsboro, but it was slowly conducted, as he expected to be joined by reinforcements from Charleston. The latter joined him on the 18th January about 35 miles north of Winnsboro: they consisted of the Brigade of Guards, the Hessian Regiment of Von Bose, 120 Yagers, and a detachment of Light Dragoons, in all about 1,500 men, under Major-General Leslie. General Greene joined Morgan on January 30th, when both commanders commenced a retrograde movement, and were followed by Cornwallis, the retreat and pursuit being skilfully conducted, and only ended within the borders of Virginia, on the banks of the River Dan.

Cornwallis was unable to cross the river, as all the boats had been removed, so he retired to Hillsborough, but marched westward on the 26th February, in order to meet Greene, who was then advancing. After some manoeuvring the armies came in contact near Guilford Court House on the 15th March, the Americans numbering from 4,500 to 5,700, and the British 2,253. Major-General Leslie commanded the right wing of the army, which was composed of the 7lst Regiment, the Regiment of Von Bose, and the 1st Battalion Guard's in reserve. The battle which followed was well contested, and resulted in a victory for the British, but the losses they sustained, the want of provisions, and the fatigue which the troops had undergone made it impossible to follow the enemy. In his dispatches Cornwallis stated that he had been particularly indebted to Major-General Leslie for his gallantry and exertion in the action, as well as his assistance in every other part of the service.

The position of the Royal Army had become precarious, being so far from its base: Cornwallis therefore retreated to Wilmington, near the coast, where he could refit, and get in touch with the shipping. Lord Rawdon, who was in command at Camden, had some 1,400 men at his disposal, including the 64th Regiment, which must have been still on the line of communications between Nelson's Ferry and Camden. Some time in February he arranged a concerted movement to crush Marion in his fastness on Snow Island, in the swamps of the Pedee River. For this purpose Lieut.-Colonel Watson (3rd Guards) with a force of 500 men, consisting of the 64th Regiment, six companies of the Provincial Light Infantry, and two guns, was to proceed from Fort Watson - ten miles above Nelson's Ferry - down the Santee River for a certain distance, and then turn north towards Snow Island, while Major Doyle, with a Provincial corps, called the Volunteers of Ireland, was directed to move from near Camden across country to the Pedee River, and eventually join Lieut.-Colonel Watson.

On the 27th February Sumpter assaulted Fort Watson in order to recapture a supply of arms and clothing which had fallen into the hands of the British, but Lieut.-Colonel Watson, with his Provincial Light Infantry, had arrived in the Fort a few hours before the attack took place, and Sumpter was repulsed with loss. Leaving his heavy baggage and stores in the Fort with a small guard drawn from the 64th Regiment and Provincial Light Infantry, Colonel Watson started in the beginning of March on his expedition against Marion, which proved to be a hazardous undertaking. The following account of Colonel Watson's march is abridged from that given in McCrady's work, "South Carolina in the Revolution," as none is available from British sources:-

Marion was soon informed of Watson's move, and he did not wait to be attacked. Leaving part of his force under Colonel Erwin at Snow Island, he made a rapid movement, and got in front of Watson at Wiboo Swamp, on the 6th March, about midway between Nelson's and Murray's Ferries. Here he laid an ambush under Colonel Horry, and posted the remainder of his horse and foot, some 400 strong, near at hand. The men in ambush gained some advantage, but Watson, with his two field pieces at the head of his regulars, dislodged them. Harrison's horse then pursued, but fell into a trap and were routed; however, Colonel Watson was able to proceed on his march. After this affair Watson rested a day or two at Cantley's plantation - where he was it seems about the 9th March - and then continued his march down the Santee, harassed at every step. One or two days afterwards another engagement took place at Mount Hope with Marion's rear guard, but with the aid of his field pieces and the strength of his column Watson was enabled to make good his way. When he arrived at the turn (northwards) to the Black River, he made a feint of still continuing down the Santee, but presently turned and took the road which leads to the lower bridge on the Black River. However, 70 of Marion's men, under a Major James, headed him, destroyed the bridge, and took post with his riflemen on the further side, so as to command the approaches.

Marion soon after arrived with the rest of his men, and stationed them in support of Major James's party. Watson when he came up tried to force the passage, but the enemy were too strongly posted, so in the evening he retired a mile up the river, and next day moved further up to Blakeley's plantation, where he remained for ten days, being much annoyed by Marion's riflemen. It is said the British were much surprised while here at Lieutenant Torriano, of the 64th Regiment, being wounded on the 15th March by a shot fired at a distance of 300 yards. Next day Colonel Watson applied to Marion for a pass to have this officer and several wounded men removed to Charleston, which was granted. It was worded as follows:- "Black River, 16th March, 1781. One officer and six wounded men, with six attendants of the British troops, are permitted to pass to Nelson's Ferry, from thence to Charleston unmolested. - (Signed) F. Marion, D.G.M." Lieutenant Torriano, wounded [apparently in the knee - Ed.]: three soldiers and a negro servant to attend the Lieutenant: six soldiers wounded, and two soldiers as attendants to the wounded soldiers.

Watson at length made a forced march down the Georgetown road, but halted at Ox Swamp, as the road through it was blocked, and the bridges on it destroyed: he then turned to the right and proceeded through the open pine woods to the Santee road, fifteen miles distant. But the British were headed, fired on, and harassed the whole way until they reached Sampit Bridge, nine miles from Georgetown, where the last skirmish took place. From Sampit Bridge Marion returned towards his camp on Snow Island, as he had heard of Doyle's advance. The latter had defeated Colonel Erwin, who had been left in charge of the camp, and who was obliged to destroy all his stores before retiring, which was a serious loss to Marion. Watson arrived at Georgetown some time after the 20th March, with two wagon loads of wounded it is said: but there having received fresh supplies and refitted, he proceeded up the west side of the Pedee River, crossed it at Euhany. and marched to Catfish Creek, a mile from where the town of Marion now stands. Many Loyalists it seems joined him there, which raised his force to 900 men; but Doyle having retreated, Marion moved towards Watson; however, being almost without ammunition, he was contemplating a retirement into North Carolina when he heard that Colonel Lee was approaching. The latter joined Marion on the 14th April, and Watson having been informed of this fact, abandoned his heavy baggage, crossed the Little Pedee and Waccamaw Rivers, and retreated between the latter river and the sea to Georgetown. Lee and Marion - against the advice of the latter - proceeded after their junction to Fort Watson in order to besiege the place, which was known to contain a supply of ammunition, of which these commanders were much in need, and on the 15th April they invested the fort. The latter was a stockade erected on an Indian mound some thirty feet high, which commanded the surrounding plain. Neither party had artillery, and as an assault on the work would have had little chance of success, the water supply was at once cut off, which came from a lake beside the mound. This device it was expected would soon compel the garrison to surrender but Lieutenant McKay, who commanded within the fort, and was a capable officer, had a trench cut to the river that ran near the mound, by which means a supply of water was obtained. The enemy then resorted to a novel expedient; there was plenty of timber in the neighbourhood, and in a single night a log tower was constructed which overtopped the fort, and a number of riflemen stationed on it. The fire from the tower searched every part of the defences, and enabled a lodgment to be made near the stockade, from where the mound could be dug away. After holding out for eight days the place became untenable, and the garrison was obliged to surrender on the 23rd April. One corporal and one private (who died on the 23rd April) of the 64th Regiment was wounded during the siege. The baggage of the regiment, which had been left in the Fort, was captured.

In the meantime General Greene came down on Camden from the north, in the hope of surprising the garrison, but they were on the alert, so he retired to a position about two miles away to the north of the village, called Hobkirk's Hill. On the morning of the 25th April Lord Rawdon marched out with 900 men - all he had left after detaching the 500 under Lieut.-Colonel Watson - and attacked Greene, who had 1,100. The latter was defeated, but Rawdon only pursued a short distance, and then returned to Camden. When Lord Rawdon heard of Greene's approach, he sent to recall Watson, who was then at Georgetown. The latter found the most eligible route to Camden, on the north side of the Santee River, barred by Lee and Marion, so he moved down that river and crossed it near its mouth, then advanced cautiously to Monks Corner. As Lee and Marion were directly in his way - by the Nelson's Ferry road - he marched straight up to McCord's Ferry, just above the confluence of the Congaree and Wateree. Crossing the Congaree here, he proceeded up the west bank of the Wateree, and passing that river near Camden, arrived at the latter place on the 7th May. General Sumpter, who was in the neighbourhood of Fort Granby, only heard of Watson's proximity when the latter was about to cross the Wateree. When informed of the fact he immediately despatched 250 of his mounted men, with orders to harass and detain him until he could arrive on his (Watson's) left flank with the infantry, while Marion came up in his rear. But Watson by a rapid march succeeded in crossing the ferry opposite the present Stateburg, and with the Wateree between himself and the enemy, proceeded in safety to join Lord Rawdon.

It seems that Major McArthur, with a body of horse, screened Lieut.-Colonel Watson during the latter part of his return march, probably from the time he left Monks Corner, as McCrady, in his History, says -"On this occasion Major McArthur appears to have exhibited the character of an active and enterprising soldier. He commanded a corps of indifferent cavalry, formed of drafts of the Hessian troops at the time in Charleston. Scouring the country in front of Watson, he appears to have completely masked his advance.

Thus ended this eventful march, during which many hardships were undergone by the troops moving through swamps and sunken ground. and encountering all sorts of obstacles, besides being harassed by Marion's marksmen. Yet by skill and perseverance Lieut.-Colonel Watson brought his little force back to Camden, after passing and eluding such celebrated partisans as Marion, Lee, and Sumpter.

The losses sustained by the 64th Regiment during the expedition were not large. According to the muster-rolls, one man died (or was killed) on the 15th March, and five died in April, probably from wounds; the number of the wounded cannot be ascertained. The corps which accompanied the 64th may have had a greater number of casualties.

Now that he had been reinforced Lord Rawdon lost no time in advancing against Greene. On the evening of the day Watson joined him, he crossed the Wateree at Camden Ferry, in order to turn the flank and attack the rear of Greene's force, where the ground was not strong. Greene had, however, moved early that afternoon; breaking up his camp upon an hour's notice, he fell back to a safe position behind Sawney's Creek. Rawdon followed, drove in his pickets and examined his position, but finding it too strong to attack, he recrossed the Wateree and returned to Camden. The American partisans were now gathering round Rawdon, and his communications being threatened, he burnt his stockades, and on the 10th May retired by easy marches towards Nelson's Ferry, in order to give time for such Loyalists as wished to join the column. The troops completed the passage of the Santee at Nelson's Ferry on the l4th May, and then continued their march to Monks Corner.

After the abandonment of the upper country, the British posts at Fort Motte, Fort Granby, and Orangeburg were speedily reduced. On the 22nd May, Greene sat down in form before Fort Ninety-Six, and Colonel Lee invested Augusta on the same date.

Fort Ninety-Six - so called from the fact of it being 96 miles distant from the principal town of the Cherokee Indians, was originally a frontier post; it was a stockaded work with deep ditches, and new defences had been added under the superintendence of Lieutenant Haldane, of the Corps of Engineers, and Aide-de-Camp to Lord Cornwallis. Lieut.-Colonel Cruger commanded the garrison, which consisted of 150 of the New York Volunteers, 200 of the 2nd Battalion New Jersey Volunteers, and 200 of the South Carolina Loyal Militia, and they made every exertion to strengthen the defences. At length, on the 2nd June, the long-expected reinforcements, consisting of the 3rd Buffs, the l9th and 30th Regiments from England, arrived in Charleston, and Lord Rawdon, who had heard with deep regret of the fall of Augusta on the 5th June, lost no time in setting out for the relief of Fort Ninety-Six. He marched from Charleston on the 7th June with the flank companies of the newly-arrived regiments, and was joined on his way by Major Doyle and the troops which he had left at Monks Corner, except the 64th Regiment. There is some uncertainty about the movements of the regiment at this time; their muster-rolls were signed at Monks Corner on the 24th June, three days after the relief of Fort Ninety-Six. They were not at Monks Corner on the 16th July, when the 19th Regiment was attacked there; but on the 2nd July Sumpter wrote to General Greene that about 250 men had marched from Monks Corner with Colonel Stewart, who commanded a convoy escorted by the Buffs, then on its way to join Lord Rawdon. It is probable that this body of 250 men - they may have numbered more - was the 64th Regiment, or the greater part of it.

The force that marched with Lord Rawdon for the relief of Fort Ninety-Six seems to have consisted of the following corps :- The flank companies of the 3rd, 19th, and 30th Regiments, a detachment of the 2nd Battalion 84th Regiment (Royal Highland Emigrants), 250 Hessians, the Provincial Light Infantry, the 63rd Regiment (very weak), the remains of the 7th Fusiliers, 40 New York Volunteers, four troops of South Carolina Loyalist Horse, some 400 Tory Militia, and five pieces of artillery; numbering altogether about 1,700 infantry and 150 horse. Lord Rawdon proceeded by forced marches, and after passing through Orangeburg, moved to the right towards Granby. About the 18th or 19th June, Major Coffin, who commanded Lord Rawdon's horse, defeated 150 of the enemy's mounted men, which had been harassing the rear of the British. At length, after fourteen days' incessant marching through an exhausted country, and under a burning sun, Fort Ninety-Six was reached, the distance from Charleston being 180 miles. Greene, hearing of Lord Rawdon's approach, hazarded an assault on the 18th June, which was repulsed with severe loss, consequently on the 19th he raised the siege and retreated to the Bush River, and on the 23rd continued his retirement over the Enoree, Tyger, and Broad Rivers. Lord Rawdon pursued on the morning of the 24th June in light marching order as far as the Enoree River, but being unable to overtake Greene, returned to Ninety-Six, which place he now decided to abandon. Accordingly he left the greater part of his force there, under Colonel Cruger, in order to bring away the public property, and such Loyalists as wished to retire more under the protection of the British, whilst he himself with 800 infantry and 60 horse set out on the 29th June for Friday's Ferry (Fort Granby), on the Congaree, where he had ordered Lieut.-Colonel Stewart and the Buffs to meet him with the convoy destined for the troops.

Greene, having been informed that Rawdon had divided his force, and was falling back to Friday's Ferry, determined to attack him before he could be joined by Stewart; Lee at the same time was ordered to intercept the latter near Granby. But Rawdon, when he reached Friday's Ferry, hearing nothing of the convoy, which had for some reason been recalled to Charleston - but only retraced its steps as far as Dorchester - set out for Orangeburg without delay. Three miles south of Granby he found Lee posted behind Congaree Creek, but brushing him aside, he arrived at Orangeburg on the 7th July, and was joined next day by Lieut.-Colonel Stewart, with the convoy escorted by the Buffs, and it seems the 64th Regiment. During the march from Ninety-Six to Orangeburg fifty of the British dropped dead from the heat and fatigue. Lord Rawdon's force, which now amounted to 1,400 infantry and a few horse, was well posted in the village, and Colonel Cruger was shortly expected with reinforcements. Greene, who had failed to overtake Rawdon, appeared on the 12th July with 2,000 men, and carefully examined the British position, but came to the conclusion that it was too strong to attack, so next day he drew off, and retired to the Santee Hills, the heat being intense. Before retiring, however, he ordered the light troops, under Marion, Lee, and Sumpter, to make a raid towards Charleston. These leaders united at Monks Corner on the 16th July for the purpose of dislodging the 19th Regiment, which was stationed there. Colonel Coates, who commanded the latter corps, decamped during the night, and retreated over Quinby Bridge, on the eastern branch of the Cooper River, but in the fighting which took place he lost 44 men killed and wounded, besides his baggage and a good many prisoners. The Americans are stated to have lost 60 casualties. Colonel Cruger, having removed the Loyalists to safe quarters, joined Rawdon at Orangeburg about the 14th July, with 1,400 men and a few Dragoons. The campaign now closed, for the intemperate heat of the climate overcame all the energies of the men. Lord Rawdon was altogether upset by it, so Colonel Stewart did not remain at Orangeburg, but moved his whole force - some 2,200 men - to near the confluence of the Congaree and Wateree Rivers, about fifteen miles from the Americans under Greene, encamped on the Santee Hills. Although Greene in the course of the year had been driven from South Carolina, twice defeated, and obliged to raise the Siege of Fort Ninety-Six, yet owing to circumstances and his own energy he had the best of the campaign. After resting his army for six weeks on the Santee Hills, and having received fresh levies from North Carolina, he put his troops in motion on August 22nd, with the object of recovering South Carolina. Finding that the passage of the Santee could not be easily accomplished, he crossed the Wateree near Camden, and the Congaree below Granby, and advanced towards Colonel Stewart's camp. On hearing of Greene's move Stewart fell back from the Congaree to Eutaw, about forty miles distant, in order to meet a convoy of provisions for the army from Charleston. Greene followed slowly. so as to give time for Marion (who had been on a raid down the Edisto River) to come up and join him before attacking the British. Marion joined Greene at Laurens's plantation on the 5th September, and on the 7th the whole force marched to Burdell's plantation, which was seven miles distant from Eutaw Springs. The country was covered with woods, and this fact, as well as Greene's superiority in mounted troops, gave the Americans a great advantage in concealing their movements as they approached the British camp. At four o'clock on the morning of the 8th September Greene moved towards Eutaw Springs in four columns, with the Legion and South Carolina troops in front. At six o'clock in the morning two deserters came into the British camp, and gave notice of the coming attack, but unfortunately they were not believed, and unarmed parties (called rooting parties) from several of the corps, consisting of four subalterns, 10 sergeants, six drummers, and 290 rank and file - including one subaltern, one sergeant, one drummer, and 60 rank and file of the 64th Regiment - had been sent out to collect sweet potatoes, in the very direction that the enemy were advancing.

Major Coffin, with 50 horse and 110 infantry, was ordered to reconnoitre in front of the rooting parties, and it seems he was to send the latter back if necessary. About seven o'clock he came on Lee's advanced troops about four miles from camp, and believing them to be Militia, charged briskly, but was soon defeated, with the loss of several killed and some prisoners. The remainder returned to camp and gave the alarm, but most of the rooting parties were captured. Greene thought that the reconnoitering party was the British advanced guard, so he halted his column and formed his line, with Lee's Legion and the State troops on the flanks, and advanced in order of battle. When Lieut.-Colonel Stewart heard that the enemy were approaching, he sent forward a detachment of infantry a mile from camp. with orders to detain the enemy while he formed his line. The British were encamped in a clearing on both sides of the main road, which ran nearly parallel to the Santee River, at a distance of about 250 yards south of it. The troops were formed in a single line, within the woods in front of the camp. which was left standing. The flank battalion, commanded by Major Marjoribanks, of the 19th Regiment, was on the right about 400 yards from the Santee, and about the same distance in front of Eutaw Creek (Nelson's Ferry was on the other side of the creek). Next to the flank battalion came the "Buffs", and on their left was posted the remnants of the New York Volunteers, 2nd Battalion New Jersey Volunteers, 1st Battalion DeLanceys, and the Provincial Light Infantry; these Loyalist corps were commanded by Colonel Cruger. The British left was posted on the south side of the road, and consisted of the 64th and 63rd Regiments; the 64th is shown in the plans of the battle as being on the left of the line, but from what Lee says in his "Memoirs", the 63rd must have been on the left. Major Coffin's Horse - a badly mounted corps, but well commanded - and a small reserve of infantry were stationed on the left rear concealed by a thick hedge. About 250 yards in the rear of the right stood a substantial brick house, two storeys high, with garret rooms, which commanded the camp, and open spaces near; behind it lay a palisaded garden extending down to Eutaw Creek, just beside the springs. Two pieces of artillery were posted on the road, with a covering party, in the centre of the line.

All the corps were very weak, and after deducting the rooting parties, the sick in camp, the baggage and camp guards, there were only 85 officers and 1,311 non-commissioned officers and men left to form the line of battle, [The 64th Regiment had a strength of 2 Captains, 6 Lieutenants, 1 Ensign, 1 Surgeon, 15 Sergeants, 11 Drummers, and 296 rank and file fit for duty according to the morning state of 8th September. There were 10 sick in camp, 83 sick in hospital, 37 on command, and 1 sergeant and 56 rank and file prisoners of war. After deducting the rooting party, baggage and camp guards, a return of the British actually in the battle shows the 64th to have had 2 Captains, 6 Subalterns, 13 Sergeants, 8 Drummers, and 151 rank and file engaged.] beside the artillery which, it seems, consisted of 6 bombardiers, 2 gunners, and 12 matrosses. The Americans were formed in two lines; the first was composed of 4 militia regiments, the 2 North Carolina battalions, under Colonel Malmedy, were in the centre (one battalion on each side of the road), with a battalion of South Carolina militia on each flank. General Marion commanded on the right, but had charge of the first line. The second line consisted of three small Brigades of Continental troops; the 3 North Carolina regiments were on the right under Sumner, 2 Virginia regiments in the centre, and 2 Maryland regiments on the left. Lee's Legion covered the right, and Colonel Henderson's South Carolina State troops (horse and foot) the left. Colonel Washington's Virginia Cavalry and the Delaware battalion formed the reserve; 2 pieces of artillery were placed in the road in the centre of each line. The Americans stated their strength at 2,300 (1,254 Continentals and 1,046 militia). As soon as the advanced parties of both armies cleared away, a severe conflict commenced, the firing began at a distance of 150 yards, and is described as being very heavy. The artillery on both sides engaged in a desperate duel, and soon the two American pieces in the first line and one of the British guns were dismounted.

The militia fought well, but the British fire being superior they gave way, after, it is said, firing seventeen rounds per man, but the North Carolina Brigade, under General Sumner, came to their support, and the contest was resumed with obstinacy. However, in a short time they were forced back, and the British left advanced. Lee, in his "Memoirs", says. "The 63rd and Legion Infantry was warmly engaged (on the flank) when the 64th, with part of the centre, advanced upon Colonel Malmedy (the latter was in the centre of the line), who, soon yielding the success, was pushed by the enemy's (British) left." The rush forward of the British left was unfortunate, the earlier part of the action taking place in the woods, the trees may have screened the enemy's second line from their view when pressing forward; or, as the American historian Carrington says: "The 63rd and 64th made an unauthorised plunge upon the American centre to capture its guns at the beginning of the fight." However, that may be, at this juncture Greene sent forward his Continental troops of the second line - the Virginia and Maryland brigades - and ordered them to charge with the bayonet. Soon there was desperate fighting along the line and bayonets are said to have clashed; the 63rd and 64th made a gallant stand, but being thus unexpectedly assailed by fresh troops in front, and outflanked by Lee - whose infantry extended beyond the British line - the left and centre gave way. Stedman, in his history of the war, says: "The pressure of the enemy's fire was such as compelled the Buffs, being young troops, to give way: but the remains of those veteran corps, the 63rd and 64th Regiments, who had served the whole war, lost none of their former fame in this action. They rushed with bayonets into the midst of the enemy, nor did they give ground until overpowered by numbers and severe slaughter." The British were driven in confusion through the camp to the cross-roads, where they were presently reformed by Colonel Stewart.

The battalion commanded by Major Marjoribanks outflanked the American left, and as its fire galled the latter, Greene ordered Colonel Washington, with his cavalry, to attack it, aided by Hampton - who had succeeded to the command of the State troops, Henderson being wounded - but Washington came to grief in the thickets near the Creek, where he was wounded and taken prisoner, and his horsemen repulsed with the loss of half their numbers. The veteran Delaware battalion then came up and pushed Marjoribanks somewhat back, but the latter posted his men close to the Creek, with their left resting on the palisaded garden: and from this position they could not be dislodged. Meanwhile Major Sheridan, with the New York Volunteers and some others had thrown themselves into the brick house, where they were attacked by some of the State troops, and the Delawares. Lee, who had been successful on the right, pushed forward with the Legion Infantry and got possession of the two British guns. These were brought up against the house, also the two American pieces from their second line, but no impression could be made on the walls, and the fire from the windows being most destructive, nearly all of the artillerymen fell beside their guns. When the Virginia and Maryland Regiments poured into the camp in pursuit, the officers ran on to join in the attack on the house, but the men stoppped to plunder and got out of hand; then the crisis came. Colonel Stewart had rallied the retreating troops at the cross-roads, and Major Marjoribanks, seeing his opportunity, came forward and attacking boldly, turned the enemy's left and captured three of the four guns which had been brought against the house. He then came on the plunderers in the camp and drove them before him, but was himself mortally wounded. When Major Marjoribanks attacked, Major Coffin also moved forward with his horse, which General Greene observing ordered the Legion Cavalry to fall on him, but Major Coffin defeated them, and then attacked the Americans which were dispersed amongst the tents. But he was then charged by the South Carolina Horse under Hampton, and after a sharp hand-to-hand conflict was obliged to retire. The Americans were now scattered, Lee had got isolated, and the British having taken the offensive, Green saw that the situation was hopeless, and ordered a retreat. He collected his exhausted men and retired, but brought off his prisoners and wounded, except those that had fallen near the house, and later in the day retreated to Burdell's plantation.

The British had 3 officers, 6 sergeants, 1 drummer, and 75 rank and file killed, 16 officers, 20 sergeants, 2 drummers, and 313 rank and file wounded. 15 sergeants, 8 drummers, and 221 rank and file missing; total 683 - over one-third of their strength. General Greene reported his loss as follows: 17 officers killed, and 13 wounded, other ranks 122 killed, 327 wounded, and 8 missing; but they left 60 wounded on the ground near the house, and Colonel Stewart states that 200 of their dead were left upon the field; the British estimated their loss at 700. The Americans claim to have taken 130 prisoners; Lee says in his "Memoirs" that 300 were captured when the line gave way; the British account for their loss in prisoners by the surprise of the rooting parties in the morning; they captured two guns and lost one. The 64th had Lieutenants Graham and Coswell wounded, Captain Strong and Ensign Layton taken prisoners (the latter died of his wounds shortly after). Two sergeants and ten rank and file were killed, three sergeants and 17 rank and file wounded, seven sergeants and 17 rank and file missing. Captain Dennis Kelly commanded the 64th Regiment in the action. Colonel Stewart says in his dispatch: "My particular thanks are due to (amongst others) Captain Kelly." Colonel Stewart remained on the field until the evening of the day after the battle, then, having destroyed what stores he could not carry away, he retreated fourteen miles to Martin's Tavern; unfortunately he was obliged to leave 70 of the more severely wounded behind. When Green heard of Stewart's retirement on the 10th September, he started in pursuit and sent Lee and Marion on by a circuitous route, in order to interpose between the British and Major McArthur, who was coming up from Fair Lawn with some reinforcements and a convoy. But the latter joined Colonel Stewart at Martin's Tavern, a few miles from Wantoot Plantation, before he could be intercepted. On the 11th September the British fell back to Wantoot, which is twenty miles from Eutaw, and seven miles north of Monks Corner.

Greene did not follow the British far, as he turned off at Nelson's Ferry, where he crossed the Santee on the 12th September and retired to the Santee Hills. Shortly after Colonel Stewart, having sent his wounded to Charleston, refreshed his men and collected 200 horse, again advanced to Eutaw Springs, and compelled Hampton and Marion, who were on the south side of the Santee, to retire across that river. Colonel Stewart, who had been wounded at the battle of the 8th September, now handed over the command to Major Doyle, who took post at Fludd's Plantation, three miles from Nelson's Ferry. Early in November the British again retired to Wantoot, and in the end of the same month it seems, made a further retirement to the neighbourhood of Goose Creek, which is nearly half way between Monks Corner and Charleston.

It is stated that the cause of this retirement was owing to the number of sick in Colonel Stewart's (who had now rejoined) force, which amounted to 928 in a total of 2,272. Keeping the field at that season of the year, amidst the swamps and rice fields was fatal to Europeans,especially to those lately arrived from home. The hardship suffered by the British in the campaigns in the Carolinas is described as dreadful, the climate, sickness, and fatigue awful. Bread was seldom to be had, and the country afforded few or no vegetables as a substitute. Salt at length ran out, and often the only resources were water and wild cattle found in the woods. It is also stated that the British could not have got on without the aid of the Loyalists, who showed them how to subsist. The muster rolls of the 64th Regiment for the half-year ending the 24th December, 1781, show a large number of deaths, numerous discharges, and many desertions, which goes far to bear out the statement made by Lamb in his notice of Captain Grattan, of the 64th Regiment, which appears in his history of the war - that the regiment lost upwards of 400 men (from various causes) during the time they served in South Carolina.

The great event of this year was the surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown in Virginia. Early in March, 1781, Sir H. Clinton sent Major-General Phillips with 2,000 men, including the 2nd Battalion Light Infantry - with which the light company of the 64th Regiment must have been present - to co-operate with Major-General Arnold in Virginia, who had already been sent there. When Cornwallis heard that Major-General Phillips had arrived he decided to join him, accordingly he left Wilmington on April 24th, and on the 20th May joined Arnold - General Phillips having died in the meantime. Many raids and skirmishes ensued, the most important engagement taking place on James's Island, when Cornwallis was about to cross the James River, in which the British were victorious. The 2nd Battalion Light Infantry was present, but not seriously engaged. Eventually Cornwallis moved towards the sea, and took post at Yorktown, where it was expected the fleet, with large reinforcements on board, would come to his aid. Here he was beseiged by Washington and Lafayette with 7,800 French and 9,000 Americans, and finally on the 19th October, 1781, was obliged to surrender with nearly 7,000 men, of whom 4,700 were fit for duty. Early in 1782 there was a general exchange of prisoners. in which the light company of the 64th must have been included, as their muster rolls were signed at Laurel Hill (Fort George) on the Harlem River, on the 3lst December, 1782. After the surrender at Yorktown the conviction became general that the war would terminate, nevertheless it continued until 1783 without, however, being signalled by any great event. Greene did not remain long on the Santee Hills, as on the 18th November he broke up his camp and moved down to the Ashley River, and in the end of the month advanced with a strong detachment to surprise Dorchester, about twenty miles north-west of Charleston, where the British had a force of 400 infantry and some horse.

On the 1st December a Loyalist patrol from Dorchester had a skirmish with the cavalry of Greene's force, and as it was believed that his main body was at hand, the garrison at Dorchester was withdrawn to Charleston Neck, where they were joined by Brigadier-General Stewart, with the troops from Goose Creek. On the 7th December Greene took up a position at a place called the Round O, about forty miles west of Charleston, while the British withdrew to Charleston Neck and James's Island. The effective strength of the battalion companies of the 64th was now very weak, as the following return, dated the 15th December, 1781, shows: - Present: 1 captain, 4 lieutenants, 2 ensigns, 1 adjutant, and 1 surgeon. Fit for duty: 10 sergeants, 11 drummers and 194 rank and file. On command: 6 sergeants, and 67 rank and file. Prisoners of war: 4 sergeants, 1 drummer, and 69 rank and file. Sick: 3 sergeants, 4 drummers, and 67 rank and file. Wounded: 1 sergeant and 20 rank and file.

After Lord Rawdon's departure, Lord Cornwallis appointed Major-General Leslie to command in the Carolinas and Georgia, but the latter - having been in Virginia - did not arrive at Charleston until the beginning of November. On the 2nd January, 1782, he was gazetted Colonel of the 63rd Regiment, and thus was severed his long and distinguished connection with the 64th Regiment. McCrady, in his history, says that during the winter several brilliant and successful sallies were made by the British from their posts about Charleston. As provisions became scarce, the latter formed a foraging fleet, consisting of armed brigs, boats, and galleys, in which they ascended the rivers and creeks in order to collect supplies. These raids were not carried out without a considerable amount of fighting. The first engagement took place on the 2nd January, when Major Coffin with 350 cavalry and infantry were transported by water to Daniel's Island, between the Wando and Cooper Rivers. This force then advanced fourteen miles to a plantation called Brabant, near which place it was attacked by a Colonel Richardson and a body of militia cavalry, but the latter were defeated with the loss of 90 killed and taken prisoners. The British then advanced to Quinby Bridge, and having collected some stores retired.

This is evidently the action mentioned in the United Service Magazine for 1831, page 516, where it states that Major Brereton, of the 64th Regiment, who commanded the Grenadiers and Light Infantry of the army, was present. A few weeks after Colonel Thompson, a Loyalist officer, accomplished a fine exploit. On the 24th February he crossed the Cooper River to Daniel's Island with a body of troops, consisting of some horse and mounted militia, the Yagers, the Volunteers of Ireland, and a detachment of the 30th Regiment. By occasionally mounting his infantry on the dragoon horses, he conveyed his whole force a distance of 36 miles without halting, to Wombaw Creek - which runs into the Santee River near its mouth. Leaving his infantry at Drake's plantation, he pressed on with the horse and defeated a force under a Colonel McDonald, killing 40 of his men. Next day, again advancing with his horsemen to Tidyman's plantation on the Santee, he defeated Marion, and then retired in safety with the cattle and provisions he had collected. On the 5th March Major and Brevet-Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, of the 54th Regiment, was promoted Lieutenant-Colonel into the 64th Regiment. The muster rolls of the 64th for the half-year ending the 24th December, 1781 were signed at Charleston Neck on the 27th March, 1782. The rolls of the Grenadier company were signed at Jamaica, Long Island, on the 11th January, and again on the 12th July of the same year at Ireland Heights, near Jamaica.

The raiding fleet still continued active; late in July it proceeded with 800 men on board to the Santee River, where a quantity of rice was collected on the adjacent plantations. The Americans believed that the destination of the expedition was Georgetown, and accordingly Marion was ordered to proceed to that place. When the latter arrived in the neighbourhood (having marched 160 miles in four days) he found none of the British about, so he advanced his force over the Sampit River, and from there watched the approaches to Georgetown. Meanwhile the raiders, having secured 600 barrels of rice, departed without being molested.

The next raid was up the Combahee River, which runs into St. Helen's Sound, about forty miles south west of Charleston. The fleet set sail sometime about the middle of August and arrived a few days after in the port of Beaufort, not far from the mouth of the Combahee; the object of the expedition was to procure provisions for the troops going to the West Indies. The force on board numbered about 800, and consisted of the 17th, 64th, and 84th Regiments, besides some Provincials, all under the command of Major Brereton, 64th Regiment. When General Greene heard that the foraging fleet had sailed southward, he suspected its destination, so on the 23rd August he instructed General Gist to proceed with the light brigade, and protect the country bordering on the Combahee River. The British moved up the river on the 24th August, and landed on the south bank, but found no rice there, and the arrival of General Gist prevented them from obtaining any on the north side of the river. It was known that a large body of militia and cavalry was advancing to join the American commander, so the troops were silently embarked on the night of the 26th August, and the fleet dropped down the river. On the same evening General Gist sent Colonel Laurens with some 60 men and a howitzer to throw up a work at Field's Point, twelve miles below Combahee Ferry, in order to annoy the British on their passage down the river. But the latter had become aware of the enemy's intentions, and a party of 140 men was landed and placed in ambush in some tall grass on the road leading to the Point. Soon after three o'clock on the morning of the 27th the enemy approached unsuspicious of danger. When the British were discovered Colonel Laurens charged, and fell at the first fire, also a captain and several men. The howitzer was taken and the enemy retreated in confusion until they met General Gist, who was approaching. The latter advanced with the light brigade and attacked the British - who had taken post under cover of a wood near the river - but he was repulsed with some loss.

This action is described in a dispatch from General Leslie dated Charleston, 8th September, as follows: "Major Brereton, who had landed a party of his force on the Cambo (Combahee), was immediately attacked by the advanced guard of a detachment from General Greene's army under General Guest (Gist). The latter was repulsed with some loss and a howitzer taken, but their whole body coming up, Major Brereton was obliged within a few hours to renew the engagement with their force, which was now increased to 300 infantry, about 60 cavalry, and two guns, to which he could oppose only part of his detachment, about 140 men. The howitzer taken by us, though disordered, was now of some use, and the enemy were quickly dispersed with some loss, one gun taken and Colonel Laurens with several officers in the number of their slain. All this was effected by the loss on our side of one man killed and seven wounded. I cannot withhold from the troops employed on this service that just praise their distinguished gallantry has so well deserved; their comparative numbers, and other circumstances of their situation will sufficiently ensure the merit of their conduct." This was the last action in the war, and Major Brereton for the fifth time received the thanks of the General commanding the troops in North America.

[Lieut.-Colonel William Brereton entered the service in 1769 as an ensign in the 17th Foot, and in 1775 joined the British American Army, and was in every action with it during the years 1776-78, much distinguishing himself. He received a severe wound on the march from Philadelphia to New York in 1778, which obliged him to return to England. In 1780 he returned to New York, and in 1781 was promoted to a majority by purchase in the 64th Regiment, and immediately joined the Southern Army in South Carolina. Though the youngest field officer in the Army, he was appointed to the command of the Grenadiers and Light Infantry by Lieut.-General Leslie, and was constantly employed in the field. In December, 1782, he was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Port Royal, Jamaica. In 1789 he became Lieutenant-Colonel of the 58th Regiment, and continued in the Army until 1792. He died on the 3rd November, 1830, in his 78th year, and felt the effect of his wound to the day of his death. In his possession was the first Regimental Colour of the 64th Regiment, which was carried through the American War of Independence. His son, Commander Brereton, R.N., who died at an advanced age in 1871, left it to the Regiment.]

McCrady says: "From the Combahee the enemy (British) passed into Broad River, in what is now Beaufort County and successively ascended the smaller streams communicating with it, carrying off all the provisions and live stock they could collect. From thence they put into Beaufort harbour, and laid the Islands of Beaufort and St. Helen's under contribution."

In the Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol.1, page 387, December, 1909, there was printed a memorandum of the agreement for a short truce between Major Brereton and Colonel Barnwell, of the South Carolina Militia, in which Major Brereton undertook to allow no depredations on Port Royal Island other than the seizure of provisions, Colonel Barnwell agreeing with his small force not to attack him meanwhile. Short extracts will show what Major Brereton's force consisted of:

"Major Brereton gave his honour that he had 500 men fit for duty... The troops are the 64th Regiment, part of the 84th, Lord Rawdon's Corps, which came up in ships under the command of Major Doyle, and a body of Hessians."

A note is appended to this agreement, which reads:

"N.B. - The troops under Major Doyle, viz., Lord Rawdon's Corps and Hessians, joined Major Brereton after the action in which Colonel Laurens was killed."

The British were recalled from Port Royal Island on the 6th September, as the fleet had arrived to embark the army, which it had now been officially announced would soon evacuate Charleston.

The expeditions through the rice fields in August and September caused much sickness. In July the American army moved down the Ashley River to within twelve miles of Charleston, but during the autumn they were in a deplorable condition from disease brought on by the campaigns in the low swampy country, and bad food which caused a great mortality. McCrady says: "To the honour of General Leslie it is to be stated, that as the war was now practically over, as far as in his power, he relieved the unhappy situation of his opponents. Many of the American officers were permitted to retire under safe conducts for their health, to the salubrious ocean air."

On the 3lst August, 1782, his Majesty's commands were conveyed to the regiments of the line, directing them to assume county titles, and in order to facilitate the procuring of recruits to cultivate a connection with that division of the country. This order was communicated to the different regiments in a letter from Field-Marshal Conway, Commander-in-Chief, of which the following is a copy:

London, August 31st, 1782.

Sir, - His Majesty having been pleased to order that the regiment of foot which you command shall take the county name of ............ Regiment, and be looked upon as attached to that division of the country. I am to acquaint you it is his Majesty's further pleasure that you shall in all things conform to that idea, and endeavour by all means in your power to cultivate and improve that connection, so as to create a mutual attachment between the county and regiment, which may at all times be useful towards recruiting the regiment; but as the completing of the several regiments, now generally so deficient, is in the present crisis of the most important national concern, you will on this occasion use the utmost possible exertion for that purpose, by prescribing the greatest diligence to your officers and recruiting parties, and by every suitable attention to the gentlemen and considerable inhabitants; and as no thing can so much tend to conciliate their attentions as an orderly and polite behaviour towards them, and an observance of the strictest discipline in all your quarters, you will give the most positive orders on that head; and you will immediately make such a disposition of your recruiting parties as may best answer that end. - I am, &c.,

H.S. Conway.

To General .........

Colonel of the .......... Regiment of Foot.

In accordance with the above command the 64th Regiment received the title of the "Second Staffordshire," and in February, 1783, the two additional or depot companies were stationed at Lichfield, their new recruiting centre, ninety-eight years before the present depot of the regiment was established at the same place.

The evacuation of Charleston having been decided on, General Leslie pressed the preparations for departure with energy. Although the fleet arrived on the 6th September to embark the troops, it was not until the 14th December that it actually sailed. The arrangements regarding the Loyalists was most difficult to carry out, numbers of whom had to be removed. The Provincial Corps were full of deserters from the American forces, as indeed the American ranks were full of British deserters. General Greene said "that at the close of the war we fought the enemy with British soldiers, and they fought us with those of America." At length, on the 14th December, the fleet sailed, and the 64th proceeded to New York. They remained in the north for some months, and seem to have joined the flank companies at Flushing, Long Island, as the muster rolls of the ten companies were signed there on the 4th July, 1783. The battalion companies must have moved to the West Indies during the same month, as their rolls were again signed at Port Royal, Jamaica, on the 26th July. The flank companies remained in America until the evacuation. The monthly return of the regiment for December, 1782, shows the strength as follows:- Eleven officers present, 24 absent: 52 non-com. officers and 320 privates fit for duty, 135 sick, wanting to complete 115. The strength of the depot in June 1782, was six officers, 10 non-com. officers, 17 privates, and 97 wanting to complete.

A year was spent in negotiating a treaty of peace with the United States, which was eventually signed at Paris on the 3rd September, 1783, and on the 25th November the British troops evacuated New York. "Thus ended." says Stedman, the historian of the war, "the most extensive, difficult, and burdensome war in which Great Britain had till then been engaged. which cost her 115,000,000 and the lives of 43,633 men, whilst the Americans during the same period lost not less than 100,000 men. Although the issue of that war was unfortunate, our national character was not impaired, nor the contest while it was maintained on the whole inglorious: neither martial ardour was wanting, nor military enterprise, nor patriotic zeal. In that rank and those circumstances of life, which are at once a temptation and an apology for dissipation and a love of pleasure, the military spirit of Britain shone forth with undiminished lustre, and the noblest families exhibited bright examples of true courage, exalted genius, and consummate wisdom."


His Majesty's 64th Regiment of Foot
Last Modified: 01/22/99